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Biology ( Botany & Zoology ) - Significance & Overview :  

The scientific study of life is known as biology. Although it is a natural science with a broad scope, it is tied together as a single, coherent field by a number of commonalities. For instance, every organism consists of cells that process genetic information that can be passed on to future generations. The explanation for the unity and diversity of life is provided through evolution, which is a major theme.


Processing energy is essential to life since it enables movement, growth, and reproduction in living things. And lastly, all living things have the capacity to control their own interior surroundings. From the molecular biology of a cell through the anatomy and physiology of plants and animals to the development of populations, biologists can investigate life at various levels of organisation. 


As a result, there are numerous subdisciplines of biology, each of which is determined by the type of research issues it addresses and the methods it employs. Similar to other scientists, biologists gather data about their surroundings by making observations, asking questions, coming up with theories, running experiments, and drawing conclusions. The diversity of life on Earth, which first appeared more than 3.7 billion years ago, is enormous.


The many kinds of life, from prokaryotic species like bacteria and archaea to eukaryotic organisms like protists, fungi, plants, and animals, have been the subject of study and classification by biologists. These varied creatures have specialised roles in the cycling of nutrients and energy through their biophysical environment, which adds to the biodiversity of an ecosystem. The oldest known origins of science, which included medicine, date back to Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt between 3000 and 1200 BCE.


They influenced the development of ancient Greek scientific philosophy. Aristotle, a Greek philosopher who lived from 384 to 322 BCE, was a major contributor to the growth of biological knowledge. He looked at the variety of life and biological causality. Theophrastus, his successor, started the formal study of plants. Al-Jahiz ( 781 - 869 ), Al-Dnawar ( 828 - 896 ), and Rhazes ( 865 - 925 ) were among the Islamic scholars of the Middle Ages who published on biology. Rhazes also wrote on anatomy and physiology.


Islamic academics working in the Greek philosopher traditions did a particularly good job of studying medicine, while natural history made extensive use of Aristotelian philosophy. With the spectacular advancement of the microscope by Anton van Leeuwenhoek, biology started to advance swiftly. Researchers made the discoveries of spermatozoa, bacteria, infusoria, and the variety of microscopic life at that time.


Jan Swammerdam's investigations sparked a renewed interest in entomology and contributed to the development of microscopic dissection and staining methods. The development of microscopy had a significant influence on biological reasoning. Biologists emphasised the vital significance of the cell in the early 19th century. Schleiden and Schwann started pushing the following now-universal concepts in 1838.


As per them cells are the fundamental building blocks of creatures. Although they disagreed with the notion that all cells originate from the division of other cells, they continued to support spontaneous generation and the idea that individual cells possess all the characteristics of life. The third tenet, however, was reified by Robert Remak and Rudolf Virchow, and by the 1860s, the majority of biologists had embraced all three, which came to be known as cell theory. 


Natural historians began to concentrate on taxonomy and classification during this time. A fundamental taxonomy of the natural world was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1735. He gave all of his species scientific names in the 1750s. In his theory of common descent, Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, treated species as artificial categories and living things as malleable. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck's writings, which offered a cogent theory of evolution, are credited with inspiring serious evolutionary thought.


Charles Darwin, a British naturalist, developed a more successful evolutionary theory based on natural selection by combining Humboldt's bio - geographical approach, Lyell's uniformitarian geology, Malthus's writings on population growth, and his own morphological expertise and extensive fieldwork. Alfred Russel Wallace came to the same conclusions independently based on analogous reasoning and data. Gregor Mendel's research in 1865 laid the groundwork for contemporary genetics. The fundamentals of biological inheritance were described in this. 

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But it wasn't until the early 20th century, when Darwinian evolution and conventional genetics were finally reunited. Only then the significance of his work came to light. Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase conducted a number of experiments in the 1940s and early 1950s. These experiments suggested DNA was the part of chromosomes that carried the trait-carrying units that were now known as genes.

The advent of molecular genetics in 1953 was ushered in by the discovery of the double - helical structure of DNA by James Watson and Francis Crick, as well as a focus on novel types of model organisms including viruses and bacteria. Since the 1950s, molecular biology has undergone a significant expansion. Following the discovery that DNA contains codons, Har Gobind Khorana, Robert W. Holley, and Marshall Warren Nirenberg succeeded in deciphering the genetic code.


To map the human genome, the Human Genome Project was started in 1990. Chemical elements make up every living thing. Of the total mass of all organisms, oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen account for the majority of 96% while calcium, phosphorus, sulphur, sodium, chlorine, and magnesium make up the majority of the remaining mass. Compounds like the essential to life substance water can be created when several elements mix.


The study of chemical reactions that take place inside and around living things is known as biochemistry. The study of molecular biology, which includes molecular synthesis, modification, processes, and interactions, aims to comprehend the molecular underpinnings of biological activity within and between cells. The Earth's first ocean, which formed some 3.8 billion years ago, gave rise to life. Since that time, every organism has the highest concentration of the molecule water.


Water is necessary for life because it is an efficient solvent that can dissolve small molecules or solutes like sodium and chloride ions to create an aqueous solution. These solutes are more likely to interact with one another and participate in the chemical processes that support life once they have been dissolved in water. Water is a tiny, polar molecule with a bent shape that is made up of two hydrogen ( H ) atoms bound to one oxygen ( O ) atom by polar covalent bonds ( H2O ).


The two hydrogen atoms have a tiny positive charge, whereas the oxygen atom has a slight negative charge due to the polar nature of the O-H bonds. By forming hydrogen bonds with other water molecules, this polar feature of water makes it cohesive. Surface tension is a product of the cohesive force created by molecular attraction at the liquid's surface.


Water is also an adhesive since it can stick to the surface of any polar or charged molecules that aren't made of water. Compared to a solid (or ice), water is denser when it is a liquid. Due to this peculiar property of water, ice can float on top of liquids like ponds, lakes, and oceans, protecting the liquid below from the chilly air above.


Water has a larger specific heat capacity than other solvents like ethanol because of its ability to absorb energy. As a result, to turn liquid water into water vapour, a significant amount of energy is required to break the hydrogen bonds between water molecules. Water is not entirely stable as a molecule because it constantly splits into hydrogen and hydroxyl ions before reforming back into a water molecule.


In pure water, the ratio of hydrogen to hydroxyl ions is balanced or equal, producing a pH of seven. Molecules with carbon attached to another element, such as hydrogen, are known as organic compounds. Nearly every molecule that each organism is made of, with the exception of water, contains carbon. Covalent bonds between up to four additional atoms can be formed by carbon, allowing it to create a wide range of massive, intricate molecules.


One carbon atom can, for instance, create four single covalent bonds, as in the case of methane, two double covalent bonds, as in the case of carbon dioxide ( CO2 ), or a triple covalent link, as in the case of carbon monoxide ( CO ). Furthermore, carbon can combine to form extremely long chains of carbon-carbon bonds, such as octane, or ring-like structures, such as glucose. 


The hydrocarbon, a broad family of organic molecules made up of hydrogen atoms joined to a chain of carbon atoms, is the most basic type of organic molecule. Other elements, such as oxygen ( O ), hydrogen ( H) , phosphorus ( P ), and sulphur ( S ), can replace a hydrocarbon backbone, altering the chemical behaviour of the resulting molecule. Functional groups are made up of these atoms ( O- , H- , P- , and S- ) and are joined to a core carbon atom or skeleton.

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The amino group, carboxyl group, carbonyl group, hydroxyl group, phosphate group, and sulfhydryl group are six major functional groups that can be found in organisms. The Miller-Urey experiment, conducted in 1953, demonstrated that organic compounds could be created abiotically in a closed system that replicated the circumstances of early Earth. This finding raises the possibility that complex organic molecules spontaneously formed in the early Earth.

Large molecules known as macromolecules are composed of monomers, or smaller components. Sugars, amino acids, and nucleotides are examples of monomers. Sugar monomers and polymers are examples of carbohydrates. Only the class of macromolecules known as lipids does not contain any polymers. They mostly consist of nonpolar, hydrophobic or water - repelling compounds such as steroids, phospholipids, and fats.


The most varied macromolecules are proteins. They consist of structural proteins, transport proteins, big signalling molecules, antibodies, and enzymes. An amino acid is the building block or monomer of a protein. Proteins are made up of twenty amino acids. Polymers of nucleotides make up nucleic acids. Hereditary information is stored, communicated, and expressed by them.

According to cell theory, cells are the basic building blocks of life, all living things are made up of one or more cells, and all cells divide to create new ones from preexisting ones. Most cells can only be seen under a light or electron microscope due to their extremely small sizes, which range from 1 to 100 micrometres. Cells can be divided into two categories, viz., prokaryotic cells, which lack a nucleus, and eukaryotic cells, which have.


Eukaryotes can be single-celled or multicellular, whereas prokaryotes are single-celled organisms like bacteria. Every cell in a multicellular organism's body eventually descends from a single cell in a fertilised egg. Every cell is surrounded by a cell membrane, which keeps the external environment from entering the cytoplasm of the cell. The lipid bilayer that makes up a cell membrane includes cholesterols that sit between phospholipids to keep them fluid at varying temperatures.


Small molecules like oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water can pass through cell membranes, which are semipermeable, but larger molecules and charged particles like ions cannot. Membrane proteins are also found in cell membranes. These include integral membrane proteins, which penetrate the membrane and operate as membrane transporters, and peripheral proteins, which cling slackly to the cell's outer membrane and function as cell-shaping enzymes. 

Cell membranes act as the attachment interface for a number of extracellular structures, including a cell wall, glycocalyx, and cytoskeleton. They are involved in many cellular functions, including cell adhesion, energy storage, and signalling. Numerous biomolecules, including proteins and nucleic acids, are found in the cytoplasm of a cell.


Eukaryotic cells also feature specialised organelles, which can be spatial units or have their own lipid bilayers, in addition to biomolecules. Among these organelles are the cell nucleus, which houses the majority of the DNA in the cell, and the mitochondria, which produce adenosine triphosphate ( ATP ) to power cellular functions. In the production and packaging of proteins, respectively, other organelles like the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus are involved.


Lysosomes are yet another specialised organelle that are capable of engulfing biomolecules like proteins. Animal cells and plant cells differ in that plant cells have extra organelles. These distinctions include a cell wall that protects the plant cell, chloroplasts that use sunlight energy to make sugar, and vacuoles that act as structural and storage organelles as well as being involved in seed reproduction and seed disintegration.


Microtubules, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments make up the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells, which aids in the movement of the cell and its organelles as well as supports the cell. The intermediate filaments are made up of fibrous proteins, whereas the microtubules are composed of tubulin ( such as -tubulin and -tubulin ). Actin molecules that connect with other protein strands make up microfilaments.

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Following is the brief outline of Biology ( Botany & Zoology ) syllabus for Classes 11 ( XI - 11 th ), 12 ( XII - 12 th ) and even higher College Level courses :

Diversity In The Living World,

The Living World,

Biological Classification,  

Plant Kingdom,

Animal Kingdom,

Structural Organisation In Plants And Animals,

Morphology of Flowering Plants,

Anatomy of Flowering Plants,

Structural Organisation in Animals,

Cell : Structure And Functions,

Cell : The Unit of Life,


Cell Cycle and Cell Division,

Plant Physiology,

Transport in Plants,

Mineral Nutrition,

Photosynthesis in Higher Plants,

Respiration in Plants,

Plant Growth and Development,

Human Physiology,

Digestion and Absorption,

Breathing and Exchange of Gases,

Body Fluids and Circulation,

Excretory Products and their Elimination,

Locomotion and Movement,

Neural Control and Coordination,

Chemical Coordination and Integration;

Reproduction : Reproduction in Organisms,

Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants,

Human Reproduction,

Reproductive Health,

Genetics And Evolution,

Principles of Inheritance and Variation,

Molecular Basis of Inheritance,


Biology In Human Welfare,

Human Health and Disease,

Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production,

Microbes in Human Welfare;

Biotechnology : Principles and Processes,

Biotechnology and its Applications,

Ecology : Organisms and Populations,


Biodiversity and Conservation,

Environmental Issues;

Energy is needed by every cell to maintain cellular functions. The collection of chemical processes in an organism known as metabolism. The three major functions of metabolism are to break down food and fuel into building blocks for monomers, to perform cellular operations, and to get rid of metabolic waste. Organisms may grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and react to their environments thanks to these enzyme - catalyzed processes.


Catabolic metabolic reactions involve the breakdown of substances, for instance, cellular respiration breaks down glucose into pyruvate. Also. Anabolic metabolic responses include the creation of substances, for example, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids. Typically, anabolism uses energy whereas catabolism releases it. 


The chemical processes of metabolism are arranged into metabolic pathways, where one molecule is changed into another by a sequence of stages, each of which is aided by a different enzyme. Because they couple desired energy - consuming reactions that organisms want to drive to occur with energy - releasing spontaneous reactions, enzymes are essential to metabolism.


Enzymes work as catalysts by lowering the activation energy required to transform reactants into products, allowing a reaction to occur more quickly without consuming them. Additionally, enzymes enable the control of a metabolic reaction's rate. For instance in response to environmental changes or signals from other cells. The process of converting chemical energy from foods into adenosine triphosphate ( ATP ), which is then used to discharge waste products, is known as cellular respiration.


During catabolic reactions, which divide big molecules into smaller ones and release energy, respiration takes place. One of the main mechanisms through which a cell releases chemical energy to power cellular activity is respiration. A sequence of biological stages, some of which include redox reactions, lead to the total reaction. Although cellular respiration is a combustion reaction in theory, the slow, controlled release of energy from the series of reactions clearly distinguishes it from one when it happens in a cell.

The primary nutrient used by animal and plant cells in respiration is sugar, specifically glucose. Aerobic respiration, which contains four steps including glycolysis, citric acid cycle also known as the Krebs cycle, electron transport chain, and oxidative phosphorylation is the name given to cellular respiration that uses oxygen.


In the cytoplasm, a metabolic process known as glycolysis transforms one glucose molecule into two pyruvates while simultaneously producing two net molecules of ATP. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex then converts each pyruvate into acetyl - CoA while also releases NADH and carbon dioxide. The citric acid cycle, which occurs within the mitochondrial matrix, is entered by acetyl - Coa. 

The entire yield from 1 glucose or 2 pyruvates at the end of the cycle is 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, and 2 ATP molecules. The final step is oxidative phosphorylation, which takes place in the mitochondrial cristae in eukaryotes. The electron transport chain is made up of four protein complexes. It is involved in oxidative phosphorylation, transfers electrons from one complex to the next and releases energy from NADH and FADH2.


It is then coupled with the pumping of protons or hydrogen ions across the inner mitochondrial membrane through chemiosmosis to produce a proton motive force. The enzyme ATP synthase is propelled by energy from the proton motive force to produce additional ATPs by phosphorylating ADPs. The last electron acceptor before the transfer of electrons ends up being molecular oxygen.

Without oxygen, pyruvate would undergo fermentation instead of being metabolised by cellular respiration. Pyruvate usually does not enter the mitochondrion. Instead, it stays in the cytoplasm, where it is changed into waste materials that can be expelled from the cell. This does two things. First it oxidises the electron carriers so they may resume glycolysis. Second it eliminates extra pyruvate.

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In order to be reused in glycolysis, fermentation converts NADH to NAD+. Fermentation prevents the cytoplasmic accumulation of NADH in the absence of oxygen and supplies NAD+ for glycolysis. The type of waste produced depends on the organism. Lactic acid is the waste product in skeletal muscles. Lactic acid fermentation is the name given to this type of fermentation. 

The respiratory chain cannot break down all of the hydrogen atoms linked by NADH during vigorous exercise because energy demands exceed energy supplies. When pyruvate and pairs of hydrogen combine to form lactate during anaerobic glycolysis, NAD+ is regenerated. In a reversible reaction, lactate dehydrogenase catalyses the formation of lactate. Another application for lactate is as an oblique precursor for hepatic glycogen.


NAD+ binds to lactate's hydrogen to create ATP during recovery when oxygen becomes available. Carbon dioxide and ethanol are the waste products in yeast. Alcoholic or ethanol fermentation is the name given to this type of fermentation. Substrate-level phosphorylation, which does not require oxygen, is used in this procedure to produce the ATP.

Plants and other living things employ a process called photosynthesis to transform light energy into chemical energy that can then be released to power the organism's metabolic processes through cellular respiration. Carbohydrate molecules like sugars, which are created from carbon dioxide and water, contain this chemical energy. The majority of the time, oxygen is discharged as a waste product.


Photosynthesis, which is primarily responsible for producing and maintaining the oxygen level of the Earth's atmosphere and providing the majority of the energy required for life on Earth, is a process carried out by the majority of plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. Light absorption, electron transport, ATP production, and carbon fixation are the four steps of photosynthesis. 

Chlorophyll pigments bound to proteins in the thylakoid membranes absorb light energy as the first stage in the process of photosynthesis. The light energy that is absorbed is used to transfer electrons from a donor ( water ) to a quinone identified as Q, which is the main electron acceptor. The second stage involves the movement of electrons from the quinone primary electron acceptor to a final electron acceptor, which is typically the oxidised form of NADP+.


This reduction of NADP+ to NADPH occurs in a protein complex known as photosystem I ( PSI ), which is made up of several electron carriers. The flow of protons (or hydrogen) from the stroma to the thylakoid membrane is connected with the transport of electrons. This movement creates a pH gradient across the membrane as hydrogen is more concentrated in the lumen than the stroma.


The proton-motive force produced across the inner mitochondrial membrane during aerobic respiration is akin to this. The third step of photosynthesis involves the transfer of protons through the ATP synthase from the thylakoid lumen to the stroma, which is related to the production of ATP by the same enzyme. 

The NADPH and ATPs produced by the light-dependent reactions in the second and third stages, respectively, supply the energy and electrons to drive the synthesis of glucose by fixing atmospheric carbon dioxide into already-existing organic carbon compounds, such as ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP), in a series of light - independent ( or dark ) reactions known as the Calvin cycle. 


The capacity of cells to receive, process, and transmit messages with their surroundings and among themselves is known as cell signalling or communication. Chemical signals or ligands interact with receptors, which can be found deep inside a cell or implanted in the cell membrane of another cell. Non - chemical signals include light, electrical impulses, and heat.


Autocrine, paracrine, juxtacrine, and hormonal signals are the four main categories of chemical signals. The same cell that releases the ligand is affected in autocrine signalling. For instance, when tumour cells send signals that start their own self-division, they can reproduce uncontrollably. The ligand diffuses to neighbouring cells during paracrine signalling and has an impact on them. 


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For instance, chemicals called neurotransmitters are released by brain cells called neurons. They diffuse across a synaptic cleft to interact with a receptor on a nearby cell, such as a muscle cell or another neuron. In juxtacrine signalling, the signalling and reacting cells are in close proximity to one another. Finally, hormones are ligands that travel to their target cells via the vascular or circulatory systems of plants or animals, respectively.


Depending on the type of receptor, a ligand's binding to a receptor can affect how one cell behaves towards another. For instance, neurotransmitters can change a target cell's excitability when they attach to an inotropic receptor. Protein kinase receptors ( such as the insulin receptor ) and G protein - coupled receptors are examples of other receptor types. 

G protein-coupled receptor activation can start second messenger cascades. Signal transduction is the method through which a chemical or physical signal travels through a cell as a succession of molecular activities. A cell divides into two daughter cells as a result of several processes that take place during the cell cycle. Included in these processes are the duplication of its DNA and a few of its organelles, as well as the following split of its cytoplasm into two daughter cells.


Latter as a procedure is known as cell division. Mitosis and meiosis are the two separate processes of cell division that occur in eukaryotes, i.e., cells from animals, plants, fungi, and protists. Replicated chromosomes are divided into two new nuclei during the cell cycle process known as mitosis. The total number of chromosomes is preserved in the genetically identical cells that result during cell division.


In general, the S stage of interphase, during which DNA is replicated, comes before mitosis or the division of the nucleus, and telophase and cytokinesis, which divides a cell's cytoplasm, organelles, and cell membrane into two new cells with roughly equal amounts of these cellular components, frequently follow. The mitotic phase of an animal cell cycle or the division of the mother cell into two genetically identical daughter cells is defined by the several mitotic stages taken collectively. 

A single - celled fertilised egg grows into a mature creature through the cell cycle, which is also essential for the renewal of hair, skin, blood cells, and several internal organs. Following cell division, each of the daughter cells starts a new cycle's interphase. In contrast to mitosis, meiosis involves one round of DNA replication followed by two divisions, producing four haploid daughter cells.


The first division, known as meiosis I, separates the homologous chromosomes. The second division, known as meiosis II, separates sister chromatids. At some time during their life cycle, sexual reproduction uses both of these cell division cycles. Both are thought to have existed in the last common ancestor of eukaryotes. Prokaryotes, which include bacteria and archaea, are capable of binary fission, or cell division.


The processes of binary fission in prokaryotes occur without the creation of a spindle apparatus on the cell, in contrast to the processes of mitosis and meiosis in eukaryotes. DNA in the bacterium is tightly coil before binary fission. It is drawn to the different poles of the bacterium after it has uncoiled and multiplied while growing larger in preparation for splitting. The development of a new cell wall, prompted by FtsZ polymerization and "Z-ring" creation, starts to separate the bacterium.


The bacteria completely splits as a result of the development of the new cell wall or septum. The discipline of genetics is concerned with inheritance. Genes and traits are passed on from parents to offspring precisely through a process known as mendelian inheritance. There are various principles in it. The first is that genetic traits, or alleles, come in distinct forms such as purple vs. white or tall vs. dwarf, and are individually inherited from one of two parents.


According to the law of dominance and uniformity, an organism having at least one dominant allele will exhibit the phenotype of that dominant allele. This law asserts that some alleles are dominant while others are recessive. The alleles for each gene segregate throughout gamete development, resulting in a single copy of each allele being present in every gamete. Two alleles are equally frequent in the gametes produced by heterozygotic individuals. 

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The law of independent assortment, which also stipulates that genes are unlinked, predicts that the various phenotypes' genes can segregate independently during the creation of gametes. Sex - related characteristics would be an exception to this rule. To experimentally ascertain the underlying genotype of an organism with a dominant trait, test crosses can be carried out.


The outcomes of a test cross can be predicted using a Punnett square. Thomas Morgan's studies with fruit flies, which showed the sex linkage between eye colour and sex in these insects, validated the chromosomal hypothesis of inheritance, which claims that genes are found on chromosomes. An area of DNA called a gene, which holds genetic information that regulates an organism's form or function, is a unit of heredity.


Two polynucleotide chains make up DNA, which are coiled into a double helix through the process of coiling. In prokaryotes and eukaryotes, it is found as circular chromosomes. A cell's genome is the collection of chromosomes that make up that cell. DNA is mostly found in the nucleus of cells in eukaryotes. The nucleoid is where prokaryotes store their DNA. An organism's genotype refers to its entire collection of genes, which contain the genetic information. 


Every strand of DNA used in DNA replication acts as a template for a new strand, which is a semiconservative process. Genetic changes known as mutations occur in DNA. They can develop on their own due to replication errors that were not corrected by proofreading or they can be brought on by an environmental mutagen, such as a chemical nitrous acid, benzopyrene, etc. or radiations x - ray, gamma ray, ultraviolet radiation, particles emitted by unstable isotopes, etc. 


Gain - of - function, loss - of - function, and conditional mutations are some examples of the phenotypic impacts that mutations can have. Because they provide the genetic variation needed for evolution, some mutations are advantageous. Others are detrimental if they lead to the loss of genes' capacity for survival. Carcinogens and other mutagens are normally avoided in order to achieve public health policy objectives.

Gene expression is the biochemical mechanism through which a DNA genotype results in an observable phenotype in the body proteins of an organism. The fundamental principle of molecular biology, which Francis Crick proposed in 1958, summarises this procedure. The Central Dogma asserts that genetic data moves from DNA through RNA to protein. The two steps in the expression of a gene are transcription from DNA to RNA and translation from RNA to protein. 


At every stage of the process, including transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-translational protein modification, environmental influences and developmental stages can control how a gene expresses itself. Depending on which of the two categories of regulatory proteins known as transcription factors binds to the DNA sequence near or at a promoter, gene expression can be affected positively or negatively by regulation.


An operon is a collection of genes with a common promoter; it is most common in prokaryotes and some lower eukaryotes, including Caenorhabditis elegans. The transcription factor known as the activator, when it binds to a region near or at the promoter of a gene, activates transcription and helps positively regulate gene expression. When a repressor, a different transcription factor, binds to an operator, a DNA sequence that is a component of an operon, transcription is inhibited.


Inducers, such as allolactose, are substances that can inhibit repressors, allowing transcription to take place. In contrast to constitutive genes, which are almost always active, inducible genes are specific genes that can be triggered by inducers. Unlike both, structural genes produce proteins that do not affect how genes are regulated. Gene expression can also be controlled by epigenetic modifications to chromatin.


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Latter is a combination of DNA and protein found in eukaryotic cells, in addition to regulatory events involving the promoter. A multicellular organism's , viz., plant's or animal's development is the process through which it undergoes a number of transformations, starting from a single cell and taking on several shapes that are distinctive to its life cycle. Development is governed by four main processes, viz., determination, differentiation, morphogenesis, and growth.


A cell's developmental fate is predetermined, and it becomes more constrained as it develops. Differentiation is the process through which stem cells and less specialised cells, like specialised cells, are separated. Undifferentiated or partially differentiated cells, known as stem cells, have the capacity to proliferate endlessly to make more of the same stem cell. 

A cell's size, shape, membrane potential, metabolic activity, and response to signals are all significantly altered during cellular differentiation. This is mostly because of tightly controlled changes in gene expression and epigenetics. With a few rare exceptions, the DNA sequence itself hardly ever changes throughout cellular development. Because of this, despite having the same genome, various cells might have extremely diverse physical properties.


Spatial changes in gene expression lead to morphogenesis, or the development of body form. The developmental-genetic toolbox, a small subset of an organism's DNA, regulates how that creature develops. Since these toolkit genes are largely conserved throughout phyla, they are old and very comparable in many groups of animals. 

The body design, as well as the quantity, kind, and arrangement of body parts, are influenced by variations in the toolkit gene expression. The Hox genes are among of the most significant toolbox genes. Where repeating elements, like the many vertebrae in snakes, will develop in an embryo or larva is determined by hox genes.

A key organising principle in biology is evolution. It is the shift in a population's heritable traits across successive generations. Animals were selectively produced for particular characteristics through artificial selection. Darwin believed that in the natural world, nature performed the role of people in selecting for particular qualities because traits are inherited, populations contain a wide mix of traits, and reproduction can grow any population.


Darwin deduced that people with heritable traits who are better adapted to their circumstances are more likely to survive and have more offspring than people without those features. He also concluded that doing so would result in the accumulation of advantageous features across several generations, improving the fit between the organisms and their environment.

The process by which one lineage separates into two lineages as a result of having evolved independently from each other is known as speciation. A species is a group of creatures that mate with one another. Reproductive isolation is a prerequisite for speciation. Incompatibilities between genes, as indicated by the Bateson - Dobzhansky - Muller model, can lead to reproductive isolation. With genetic divergence, reproductive isolation also tends to get worse.


Allopatric speciation is the process of speciation that takes place when physical barriers separate an ancestral species. An evolutionary timeline of a particular group of animals or their genes is called a phylogeny. A phylogenetic tree, a diagram that depicts the lines of ancestry between organisms or their genes, can be used to display it. Each line depicted on a tree's time axis shows a lineage of ancestors from a certain species or population.


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On the phylogenetic tree, a split or fork is shown when a lineage splits into two. The foundation for comparing and classifying various species is provided by phylogenetic trees. Different species are said to have homologous traits, also known as synapomorphy, if they share a trait that they gained from a common ancestor. The foundation for biological taxonomy is phylogeny. 


The domain has the greatest rank in this rank-based classification scheme, which is then followed by kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. All creatures can be categorised as belonging to one of three domains: eukarya ( which includes the protist, fungus, plant, and animal kingdoms ), bacteria ( originally eubacteria ), or archaea ( formerly Archaebacteria ).

From the earliest appearance of life to the present, the evolution of organisms is traced in the history of life on Earth. All life on Earth, including living and extinct, is descended from a final common ancestor that lived about 3.5 billion years ago. Earth created about 4.5 billion years ago. The Precambrian, which lasted roughly 4 billion years, is made up of the Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic, and Phanerozoic aeons. 


The first three of which are collectively known as the Precambrian. From there, the geologic time scale was devised by geologists to split Earth's history into main periods. The Phanerozoic aeon, which started 539 million years ago, was further divided into the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic periods. The Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary are the eleven periods that these three eras make up. 


All currently recognised species contain similarities that suggest they separated from their common ancestor during the course of evolution. The genetic code is found in all bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, which is considered proof of universal common descent by biologists. In the early Archean epoch, microbal mats of coexisting bacteria and archaea were the predominant form of life. It is believed that many of the key developments in early evolution occurred in this setting. 

While eukaryotes may have existed earlier, the first evidence of them dates from 1.85 billion years ago. After they began utilising oxygen in their metabolism, their diversification accelerated. Multicellular organisms first appeared later, some 1.7 billion years ago, with differentiated cells carrying out specialised tasks. Although evidence suggests that micro - organisms formed the earliest terrestrial ecosystems at least 2.7 billion years ago, multicellular land plants resembling algae have been dated as far back as 1 billion years.


The origin of land plants is assumed to have been facilitated by micro - organisms during the Ordovician epoch. Land plants were so prosperous that it is believed that they helped cause the Late Devonian extinction event. While vertebrates and the majority of other modern phyla emerged around 525 million years ago during the Cambrian explosion, Ediacara biota first appeared during the Ediacaran period. Synapsids, which included the progenitors of mammals, ruled the land throughout the Permian period.


However, the majority of this group went extinct during the Permian - Triassic extinction event 252 million years ago. Archosaurs overtook other land vertebrates as the Earth recovered from this calamity; one archosaur group, the dinosaurs, ruled the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. Mammals rapidly expanded in size and variety following the loss of the non-avian dinosaurs during the Cretaceous - Paleogene extinction event 66 million years ago. These huge extinctions may have sped up evolution by allowing new organismal groups to diversify.

Bacteria are one of the many prokaryotic micro organisms that make up the type of cell. Bacteria come in a variety of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals, and are typically only a few micrometres long. The majority of the habitats on Earth contain bacteria, which were among the first life forms to inhabit the planet. The deep biosphere of the earth's crust, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, and soil all support bacterial life.

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Additionally, bacteria coexist with plants and animals in parasitic and symbiotic ways. Only about 27 percent of the bacterial phyla have species that can be grown in a lab, and the majority of bacteria have not been fully characterised. The word "archaebacteria", in the Archaebacteria kingdom, which was once used to describe archaea, has lost use. Archaea are the other domain of prokaryotic cells. The differences between archaeal cells and the bacteria and eukaryotes are due to their special characteristics.


Multiple recognised phyla are used to further categorise archaea. Although some archaea have quite distinct shapes, as the flat and square cells of Haloquadratum walsbyi, most archaea and bacteria are comparable in size and shape. In spite of their morphological resemblance to bacteria, archaea have genes and a number of metabolic pathways that are more similar to those found in eukaryotes, particularly those that are involved in transcription and translation. 

Other distinctive characteristics of archaeal biochemistry include their reliance on ether lipids, such as archaeols, in their cell membranes. Archaea employ a wider variety of energy sources than eukaryotes, including organic substances like sugars, ammonia, metal ions, and even hydrogen gas. No known species of archaea can do both, unlike plants and cyanobacteria, but salt - tolerant archaea or the Haloarchaea use sunlight as a source of energy and other archaea species fix carbon.


By binary fission, fragmentation, or budding, Archaea reproduce asexually. Unlike bacteria, no known species of Archaea produces endospores. 

Extremophiles, or the earliest discovered archaea, were organisms that only inhabited hostile conditions like salt lakes and hot springs. Archaea have been found in practically every habitat, including soil, oceans, and marshes, thanks to better molecular identification technologies.


In the oceans, archaea are highly prevalent, and the group of archaea found in plankton may rank among the most numerous species on the world. An important component of life on Earth is archaea. All organisms' microbiotas contain them. They play a significant role in the stomach, mouth, and skin in the human microbiome. They can perform a variety of ecological functions. Latter are carbon fixation, nitrogen cycling, organic compound turnover, and maintaining microbial symbiotic and syntrophic communities.


All this is thanks to their diversity in morphology, metabolism, and geography. The split of eukaryotes from archaea is thought to have occurred after their endosymbiotic relationships with bacteria also known as symbiogenesis. It gave rise to mitochondria and chloroplasts, both of which are now found in modern eukaryotic cells. Alveolates, excavates, stramenopiles, plants, rhizarians, amoebozoans, fungi, and animals are the eight primary clades that make up the major lineages of eukaryotes.


These underwent a period of diversification in the Precambrian about 1.5 billion years ago. The term "protists" refers to a group of five of these clades that consists primarily of microscopic eukaryotic organisms that are not plants, fungi, or mammals. Protists do not represent a discrete clade by themselves even though it is likely that they all descended from the same ancestor. Latter are known as the last eukaryotic common ancestor, as some protists may be more closely related to plants, fungi, or animals than they are to other protists.


The protist grouping is not a valid taxonomic group but is instead used for convenience, similar to groups such as algae, invertebrates, or protozoans. Microbiological eukaryotes are protists that are typically unicellular in nature. Plants are primarily multicellular, eukaryotic, photo synthetic organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae, which excludes fungi and some algae. About a billion years ago, an early eukaryote and a cyano bacterium formed an endo symbiotic relationship that resulted in the development of chloroplasts and plant cells.

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The majority of the aquatic photosynthetic eukaryotic creatures are commonly referred to as algae, which is a term of convenience because not all algae are closely related. The first few clades that formed after initial endosymbiosis were aquatic. Numerous diverse clades of algae exist, including the microscopic freshwater algae known as glaucophytes, which may have resembled the early unicellular ancestor of Plantae in morphology.


The other algal clades, such as red and green algae, are multicellular in contrast to glaucophytes. The three main clades of green algae are the coleo chaetophytes, stone worts, and chlorophytes. A type of eukaryote, fungi secrete digestive enzymes that break down large food molecules before absorbing them via their cell membranes. They accomplish this outside of their bodies. 

Numerous fungus are also saprobes, which means they consume decomposing organic waste and are crucial decomposers in ecological systems . Multicellular eukaryotes like animals are. Animals generally eat organic matter, breathe oxygen, can reproduce sexually, and form from a hollow ball of cells called a blastula during early development. It has been estimated that there are more than 7 million animal species overall. 


Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described so far. Out of latter, about 1 million are insects. They construct extensive food webs through their complex interactions with one another and their surroundings. Submicroscopic infectious microorganisms called viruses replicate inside the cells of living things. All types of life forms, including bacteria and archaea, as well as animals, plants, and microbes, are susceptible to virus infection.


More than 6,000 different viral species have been thoroughly described. Viruses are the most common sort of living organism and can be found in practically all ecosystems on Earth. It is uncertain where viruses first appeared in the evolutionary history of life. Some viruses may have descended from bacteria, while others may have originated from plasmids, which are DNA fragments that can migrate between cells.


In the process of evolution, viruses play a key role in horizontal gene transfer. This boosts genetic diversity similarly to sexual reproduction. Viruses have been referred to as "organisms at the edge of life" and "self-replicators" since they share some traits with life but not all of them. Ecology is the study of life's abundance and distribution, as well as how creatures interact with their surroundings.


A group of living species, or biotic organisms, together with the nonliving or abiotic elements of their environment, such as water, light, radiation, temperature, humidity, atmosphere, acidity, and soil, is referred to as an ecosystem. Through nutrient cycles and energy flows, these biotic and abiotic elements are interconnected. Photosynthesis is the process by which solar energy enters the system and is absorbed by plant tissue.


Animals transport substance and energy across the system by feeding on plants and on one another. They also have an impact on the biomass levels of microorganisms and plants. Decomposers are organisms that break down dead organic matter, releasing carbon into the atmosphere and facilitating nutrient cycling. This helps in transforming nutrients held in dead biomass into forms that are easily utilisable by plants and other microorganisms.

An area is inhabited by a population of the same species of organisms when they reproduce continuously there. By dividing population density by the area or volume, one can calculate population size. When food, habitat, water, and other resources are available, a species' carrying capacity refers to the largest population size that can be supported by that particular ecosystem.


Changes in the availability of resources and the expense of sustaining them, for example, might have an impact on a population's carrying capacity. The Earth's carrying capacity for humans has gradually increased because to new technologies like the Green Revolution. Attempts to foresee an approaching population drop have been thwarted by this.

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Thomas Malthus' work from the eighteenth century is the most well-known. A community is a collection of populations of one or more species that are present in the same location at the same time. The impact that two species coexisting in a community have on one another is referred to as a biological interaction. They may interact with members of other species within the same species or between species called interspecific interactions.


These outcomes could be either short - term, like pollination and predation, or long - term. Both frequently have a significant impact on the development of the species in question. Symbiosis is the name for an ongoing relationship. Symbioses can be mutualistic, which is advantageous to both parties, or competitive, which is detrimental to both partners. Every species engages in consumer - resource interactions. 


This make up the foundation of food chains or food webs, either as a consumer, a resource, or both. Any food web has different trophic levels, with the primary producers or autotrophs, which include plants and algae, at the lowest level. These organisms transform energy and inorganic material into organic compounds that can be consumed by the rest of the community. Heterotrophs, or species that gain energy by disassembling organic components from other organisms, are at the next level.


While heterotrophs that eat herbivores are secondary consumers or carnivores. Heterotrophs that eat plants are primary consumers or herbivores. Additionally, tertiary consumers are those who eat secondary consumers, and so forth. Omnivorous heterotrophs have the capacity for several degrees of consumption. Decomposers, who consume waste materials or dead creatures, are the last group of organisms. 

A trophic level's total energy incorporation per unit of time is typically equal to around one - tenth of the energy that the trophic level consumes. Ninety percent of the energy is not used by the next trophic level and is instead used by decomposers to break down waste and dead matter and to release heat from metabolism. Depending on their shapes and locations, matter can exist as biotic or abiotic, accessible or inaccessible, interacting compartments in the global ecosystem or biosphere.


For instance, although the matter in rocks and minerals is abiotic and inaccessible, the matter from terrestrial autotrophs is both biotic and available to other species. The biotic or biosphere and abiotic or lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere compartments of the Earth's surface are connected by a pathway called a biogeochemical cycle. For nitrogen, carbon, and water, there exist biogeochemical cycles.

The goal of conservation biology is to prevent species, their habitats, and ecosystems from experiencing unnaturally high rates of extinction and the degradation of biotic interactions. It focuses on maintaining evolutionary processes that produce genetic, population, species, and ecological diversity as well as factors that affect the loss, restoration, and maintenance of biodiversity.


Concern arises from predictions that up to 50% of all species on the globe could go extinct within the next 50 years, which has exacerbated poverty and malnutrition and will alter the direction of the planet's evolution. Ecosystems, which offer a range of services on which people rely, are impacted by biodiversity. 

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Researchers and educators in the field of conservation biology study the patterns of biodiversity loss, the extinction of species and the detrimental effects these trends are having on our ability to maintain the well - being of human society. Through conservation action plans that direct research, monitoring, and education programmes that engage concerns at local to global scales. So, organisations and citizens are responding to the current biodiversity crisis.

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