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Political Science As a Subject - Scope, Applicability & Future Roadmap :

Political Science is among the prominent subjects of Humanities and Arts discipline. It encompasses analysis of theoretical and practical aspects of the political structures, as well as, related political, cultural, social and economic milieu through the entire recorded human history. Various aspects like political philosophy of Indian constitution and framework of Indian constitution encompassing various pillars of our democratic systems, fundamental rights, directive principles of state policies, elections, representations, judiciary, legislature, executive, federalism and local governance are deeply studied.

From political theory perspective, application and scope of political freedom, positive liberty, negative liberty, constraints, harm principles, social justice, equitable distributions, justice mechanisms, jurisprudence, fairness, legal rights, legal studies, equality dimensions, citizenships ( Global & Universal ), nation & nationalism, pluralism, secularism, challenges to peace and development models are widely discussed. 


The scientific study of politics is known as political science. It is a social science that studies political institutions, political philosophy, political psychology, political conduct, and related constitutions and laws, as well as systems of governance and power.

In addition to local and national level politics, their associated political environment, related analytical political science, Pol Science deeply touches upon or enters into the arena of international political science and international politics. Political Science also primarily builds upon the retrospective research and study of contemporary world politics, world orders & developments like Cold War, Non-Aligned Movement, End of Bipolar Blocks & Bipolarity, Unipolar World, New Centres of Power and World Organisations ( European Union, ASEAN, SAARC, BRICS ).


Pol Science or Political Science additionally focuses upon the developments in areas of World Environment, Optimum Utilisation of Natural Resources, Global Warming, United Nations & Constituent Organisations, World Security & Terrorism Deterrence, South Asia & Contemporary World, Establishment of Political Systems & Governance across South Asia, Political Democratisation of South Asian countries, Globalisation, World Peace Keeping Initiatives & Forces and Building of Productive Foreign diplomatic relationships. 


Political Science delves into the contemporary Indian Political arena too. It emphasises upon the fundamental factors leading to the study of Indian political environment since independence. Political Science primarily researches upon the political nation - building measures, political party systems ( double, single or multi-party ), planning & development policies, security programmes with nuclear deterrence, India's foreign policies, Regional Party Building & Activisms, Local & Regional politics, new social movements, protests and the movers - shakers of Indian political set - up.


The outcome of the scientific study & analysis of the afore - mentioned common and prominent political structures, political systems leads to the determination of the direction of evolving political landscape.


Merits and demerits of analytical outcomes are noted and optimal political solutions are imbibed into the existing political structures, as well as kept for futuristic adoptions and implementations. Political Science interfaces with other disciplines like Social Science ( Social Studies ) , Sociology, Psychology, History, Civics, Economics - Micro Economics & Macro Economics, Geography, Geospatial Technology, Legal Studies and others. Political Science is multi - disciplinary in nature and has a huge research potential.

Comparative politics, international relations, and political theory are the three main sub disciplines of contemporary political science. Public policy and administration, domestic politics and governance, political economy, and political methodology are additional noteworthy sub disciplines. The disciplines of economics, law, sociology, history, philosophy, human geography, political anthropology and psychology are also connected to and influenced by political science.

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Political science employs a wide range of methodologies, including those from psychology, social sciences, and political philosophy. Positivism, interpretivism, rational choice theory, behaviourism, structuralism, post - structuralism, realism, institutionalism, and pluralism are some of the methodologies. As one of the social sciences, political science employs approaches and techniques appropriate to the questions it seeks to answer : primary sources, like official records and historical documents, and secondary sources, like scholarly journal articles, survey research, statistical analysis, case studies, experimental research, and model development.

In the second part of the 19th century, modern political science began to develop as a social science and began to dissociate itself from political philosophy and history. It was still unusual for political science to be regarded as a separate discipline from history in the late 19th century. The term "political science" was not always distinguished from political philosophy.


The modern discipline has a distinct lineage that includes moral philosophy, political economy, political theology, history, and other fields concerned with making normative judgements about what should be and determining the traits and purposes of the ideal state.

In the late 19th century, university departments and chairs bearing the name of political science were established, marking the beginning of political science as a field. A person having a PhD or master's degree in politics is typically referred to as a "political scientist." The history of political science has offered a fertile arena for the creation of both normative and positive political science, with each section of the discipline sharing certain historical predecessors.

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Political Science is a core humanities subject for students belonging to School Class 11th and Class 12th levels, as well as, various College level undergraduate and postgraduate course studies. The students of Political Science whether from Colleges, Universities or Schools come from various backgrounds and nationalities. Nevertheless, they follow regular and irregular modes of classes, learning delivery and educational support services. Deep emphasis is upon the value and quality being churned out of the educational oriented support and learning delivery. All this has stark connotations, some that are quite well founded, grounded and indeed deeply cross functional in nature.


For school and college level studies different Boards of Education, viz, Central Board of Secondary Education - CBSE, International General Certificate of Secondary Education - IGCSE, Indian Certificate for Secondary Education - ICSE, International Baccalaureate - IB, National Institute of Open Schooling - NIOS, Indira Gandhi National Open University - IGNOU, Rajasthan Board of Secondary and Senior Secondary Education, Uttar Pradesh Board of Secondary and Senior Secondary Education, Private Candidates, Correspondence Studies, Distance Education, Private Patrachaar and other State Level Boards, very well impart educational pedagogy, scope governance and learning delivery.

In an effort to set political science apart from economics , sociology, commerce, business studies, accounting and other social sciences, the American Political Science Association and the American Political Science Review were established in 1903 and 1906, respectively. 204 people joined the APSA in 1904 ; 1,462 people did so in 1915. Political science departments that were separate from those for history, civics, geography, psychology,  philosophy, law, sociologyand macroeconomics were established in large part because to the efforts of APSA members.

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The Academy of Political Science founded the magazine Political Science Quarterly in 1886. Munroe Smith outlined political science as follows in the first issue of Political Science Quarterly: "The national science. When viewed in this light, it covers both the relationships between states as well as the structure and activities of the state." The International Political Science Association, as well as national organisations in France, Britain, and West Germany, were established in 1949, as part of a UNESCO drive to advance political science in the late 1940s.

A behavioural revolution that emphasised the systematic and meticulously scientific examination of both individual and group behaviour overtook the discipline in the 1950s and 1960s. Early works in behavioural political science, such as those by Robert Dahl, Philip Converse, and the partnership between sociologist Paul Lazarsfeld and public opinion expert Bernard Berelson, focused on analysing political behaviour rather than institutions or the interpretation of legislative texts.

The application of deductive, game - theoretic formal modelling tools to create a more analytical body of knowledge in the field took hold in the late 1960s and early 1970s. At this time, there was a spike in the amount of research that looked at political institutions like the US Congress as well as political behaviour like voting using primarily, economics theory ( microeconomics & macroeconomics ), accounting standards, commerce initiatives, legal compliances, Business & Entrepreneurship structures and methodologies.

The principal proponents of this change were William H. Riker, his colleagues, and his students at the University of Rochester. Despite significant advancements in the field's study on the basis of all the types of scholarship mentioned above, it has been noted that the field's development towards systematic theory has been inconsistent and small.

The Perestroika Movement in political science was established in 2000 as a response to what its proponents referred to as the mathematization of political science. Those who affiliated with the movement called for political science to be more relevant to people outside of it as well as for a diversity of methodology and approaches.

According to some theories of evolutionary psychology, humans have built extraordinarily sophisticated psychological defences against politics. But rather than the much bigger political institutions of the modern world, these processes evolved to deal with the small - group politics that typified the environment of the ancestors. This is said to explain a number of significant traits and recurring cognitive biases in modern politics.

Political science is a social science , as well as a sociological research oriented discipline that very intensively examines how power is distributed and transferred during decision - making, the functions and structures of government, including national and international institutions, as well as political behaviour and public policy. By looking at a variety of variables, including as stability, justice, material riches, peace, and public health, it gauges the effectiveness of governance and specific programmes.


By analysing politics, some political scientists try to promote positive theses, which explain things as they are rather than how they ought to be, and others try to advance normative theses, such as by offering particular policy suggestions. Politics, Business, Commerce, Economics and policy studies can be closely related to one another. For instance in comparative studies of which political institutions tend to produce particular kinds of policies.

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Political science offers analysis and forecasts regarding governmental and political issues. Political scientists study systems, processes, and political dynamics of many nations and regions of the world, frequently in an effort to inform the public or influence particular governments. Journalists, special interest groups, legislators, and the electorate may use the frameworks developed by political scientists to study topics. 

Politicians may seek the advice of political scientists, who may also run for office themselves. Governments, political parties, economics ( microeconomics & macroeconomics ) practitioners, civics implementors, historical archives, geographical investigators, sociological scientists, social researchers, commerce analysts, financial accountants, Business conductors, Entrepreneurial architects, language translators ( Hindi , English , Sanskrit ), Geospatial mappers, Science adopters, Legal Watchdogs, DS Data Science Analysts, Environmental Conservation Regulators, Mass Media Bodies, IP Informatics practitioners and civil services all employ political scientists.


Political scientists could be associated with political movements or non - governmental organisations ( NGOs ). Someone with a political science background can contribute value and expertise to corporations in a range of roles. Political scientists are frequently employed by private organisations including think tanks, research institutions, polling companies, and public relations businesses.

Political scientists may focus on studying political phenomena inside a single nation, such as solely the politics of the United States or China. Public opinion, constitutions, elections, public policy, foreign policy, legislatures, and judiciaries are just a few of the facts that political scientists examine. Political scientists frequently concentrate on the politics of their own nation; for instance, an Indonesian political scientist would specialise in Indonesian politics.

Political science includes topics like the theory of political transitions and techniques for assessing and foreseeing crises. There have been several approaches suggested for predicting crucial transitions as well as broad markers of crises. One of these, a simultaneous increase in variance and correlations in large groups, was proposed for crisis anticipation and may be employed successfully in a variety of contexts. The examination of the protracted stressful time before to the 2014 Ukrainian economic and political crisis served as a demonstration of its usefulness for early identification of political crises.

During the years leading up to the crisis, both the overall correlation between the 19 most prevalent worries in Ukrainian society ( which increased by around 64% ) and their statistical dispersion ( which decreased by 29% ) increased at the same time. Some significant revolutions share the trait of being unpredicted. Another notion that was created was the idea that crises and revolutions seem to be inevitable.

Attempts to forecast regime changes or significant alterations to political institutions are only one aspect of the study of big crises, including both internal and external crises that can have an impact on politics. Political scientists also research how governments respond to unanticipated crises and how citizens in democracies view their governments' crisis planning and management efforts.

Political scientists approach the study of politics from a wide range of distinct ontological viewpoints and with a number of different tools. Political science is methodologically diverse. Since political science is fundamentally the study of human psychology and behaviour, it can be difficult to replicate or repeat observations made in controlled settings in all facets of politics, even though experimental approaches are becoming more and more popular ( see experimental political science for more information ).


Former American Political Science Association President Lawrence Lowell once mentioned this challenge "Since experiments are impossible, we are constrained. Politics is not an experimental science. It is an observational one." In order to spot trends, make generalisations, and develop theories of politics, political scientists have historically observed political leaders, institutions, and individual psychology or group behaviour.

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Political science, like all social sciences, has trouble studying human actors. It is because they can make conscious decisions and can only be partially observed, unlike other subjects like non - human organisms in Biology ( including Botany , BioChemistryZoology , Biotechnology , Haematology , MicroBiology ), minerals in geospatial and geosciences, chemical elements in chemistry, stars in astronomy, or particles in physics.


Despite the complexity, modern political science has advanced by incorporating a range of techniques and theoretical frameworks to comprehend politics; methodological diversity is a distinctive aspect of modern political science. Field experiments, surveys, survey experiments, case studies, process tracing, historical and institutional analysis, ethnography, participant observation, interview research, and case studies are all examples of empirical political science methodologies.

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To examine a variety of political systems and events, political scientists also create and employ theoretical tools like agent - based models and game theory. Political theorists employ a broad range of perspectives and methods when approaching theories of political phenomena, including feminist political theory, historical analysis linked to the Cambridge school, and Straussian methodologies.

When sociological norms or psychological biases are linked to political phenomena, for example, political science may research themes that are traditionally the focus of other social sciences. In these situations, political science could adopt their research techniques or adopt a different strategy.

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For instance, Lisa Wedeen has claimed that political science's methodological approach to the concept of culture, developed by Gabriel Almond and Sidney Verba and epitomised by writers like Samuel P. Huntington, could profit from a closer kinship with the study of culture in anthropology. Political scientists' approaches may, in turn, affect how academics in other disciplines, like public health, think about and approach political processes and policy.

Political science can be characterised as "a discipline which lives on the fault line between the 'two cultures' in the academy, the sciences and the humanities," presumably similar to the social sciences as a whole.

Hence, if there is no separate college of arts and sciences or if the college or university prefers that it be in a different constituent college or academic department, it would be located within the school or college of arts and sciences in most American universities, especially liberal arts colleges. It is possible for political science to be placed as a separate department inside a humanities or liberal arts division or school.

While political science is typically taught by the university's public policy school at some universities, particularly research universities and in particular those that have strong collaboration between research, undergraduate, and graduate faculty with a stronger more applied emphasis in public administration. Political scientists, who also study classical thought, are marked by a great concern for "modernity" and the contemporary nation state. 


Whereas classical political philosophy is primarily defined by a concern for Hellenic and Enlightenment thought. As a result, political scientists and sociologists share more terminology ( e.g., structure and agency ). Political science BA programmes are available at the majority of American schools and institutions. At major universities, PhD or EdD programmes and MA or MAT degrees are typical.


Some institutions, particularly those outside of the United States, view political science as a subset of a larger discipline of political studies, history, economics, commerce, business studies & entrepreneurship, accounting, sociology, legal studies, civics, geospatial politics, or government. Political science is more widely used in North America than anywhere else, thus, very much an established and globally acclaimed research oriented discipline.


Political studies indicates a broader approach, whereas political science requires the use of the scientific method, albeit the names of degree programmes do not always correspond to their contents. At both the undergraduate and graduate levels, separate programmes typically leading to professional degrees in public administration, public policy, and international relations are prevalent. Nevertheless, not all undergraduate programmes in these subfields are offered at the undergraduate level.

At both the undergraduate and graduate levels, separate programmes often leading to professional degrees in public administration, public policy, and international relations are common. However, the majority, though not all, undergraduate education in these sub fields is typically found in academic concentrations within a political science academic major.


The fact that master's - level programmes in public administration are placed in the department of politics may reflect the fact that many people believe politics to be more closely related to public policy than any other discipline. While Pi Alpha Alpha is a national honour society exclusively for public administration, Pi Sigma Alpha is the primary national honour society for college and university students of government and politics in the United States.

Writings in the political sciences can be of a variety of genres, including but not limited to, research papers and argumentative essays, writing political theory, essays and articles responding to publications, texts, views, and events. Research papers, which look into an original research question are the most typical type of writing in the political sciences.

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History of Political Science :

In terms of the social sciences, the name "political science" is relatively recent, yet studying political power and the impact it had on history has been going on for centuries. The modern discipline has a clear set of antecedents, including moral philosophy, political economy, political theology, history, and other fields concerned with deriving the qualities and functions of the ideal state and with normative determinations of what ought to be.


However, the term "political science" was not always distinguished from political philosophy. The word "political science" as a whole can be deficient in some particular features yet is present around the world in several fields. The Socratic political thinkers, including Aristotle ( "The Father of Political Science" ), might be seen as the ancestors of Western politics ( 384 – 322 BC ). One of the first to offer a practical definition of political science was Aristotle.


He thought it was a strong area of science, and it had special control on other areas, like military science. Contrary to how it was portrayed by the Greek philosophers who came before them, political philosophers like Plato and Aristotle started to study political thought in a way that gave more emphasis to the scientific side of political science. Prior to Plato, prominent playwrights, historians, and poets provided the majority of political criticism.

When the Roman Empire was at its height of prosperity, men were both documenting history as it unfolded and adding their own perspectives, as well as those who were enacting the politics of the day and affecting history as it happened. The prominent historians included Plutarch, Livy, and Polybius. These men concentrated not just on recording the rise of the Roman Empire but also on other countries' ascent and demise.

Political figures like Cicero and Julius Caesar were among the men carrying out the laws, especially jurisprudence, as they saw fit. While Caesar was a despot who maintained a tight hold on his subjects in order to safeguard his authority, he did implement reforms that would later prove advantageous to the populace. At that time, political science was the process of comprehending the influence of governing bodies, the manner in which rulers chose to enact jurisprudence oriented laws, and the overall history of certain nations.


Between the founding of the city of Rome in 753 BC and the fall of the Western Roman Empire or the start of the Middle Ages, over a thousand years passed. Meanwhile, there is a clear transfer of Hellenic culture into the realm of Rome. Greek philosophy and gods were eventually adopted by the Romans.

Stoicism, a Greek philosophy ( built upon psychological researches ), was incorporated into Roman jurisprudence and law constructs. For the sake of the stability of the state as a whole, the Stoic was dedicated to upholding appropriate hierarchical roles and responsibilities. Seneca, a philosopher, and Marcus Aurelius, an emperor, were two of the most prominent Roman Stoics. Some contemporary writers and historians frequently criticise Seneca, a wealthy Roman nobleman, for not sufficiently adhering to his own teachings.

On the other hand, The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius are best understood as the philosophical musings of an emperor torn between his philosophical aspirations and the duty he felt to preserve the Roman Empire from its foreign adversaries through his multiple military battles. Polybius claimed that Roman institutions served as the empire's skeleton, while Goldman Law is the medulla.

P Pol Science derives from philosophy too.

There was a wider field for political studies after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The advent of monotheism, notably Christianity in the Western tradition, opened up new possibilities for politics and political action. By fusing modern political and philosophical ideas with Christian ones, works like Augustine of Hippo's The City of God redefined the boundaries between religion and politics.

The study of politics was common in the courts and churches during the Middle Ages. At this time, the majority of the political issues pertaining to the interaction of church and state were clarified and debated. Niccol Machiavelli founded the focus of modern political science on direct empirical observation of political structures and actors during the Italian Renaissance.

Machiavelli presents a realist perspective in The Prince, contending that even bad measures should be taken into account, if they aid in establishing and upholding a ruler's state. Machiavelli has been referred to as the founder of the "politics model" of political science and also argues against the application of idealistic ideals in politics. In the Discourses of Livy, one of Machiavelli's lesser - known works, he adopted a distinct tenor.

He elaborates on the benefits of republicanism and what it means to be a good citizen in this work. The Discourses do, however, contain certain - The Prince - related ideas as well. Later, the Enlightenment's extension of the scientific paradigm pushed the study of politics even further beyond normative judgements.

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Following is an outline of the Central Board of Secondary Education CBSE / NCERT prescribed syllabus for subject Political Science for Class 11 ( Class 11th - XI ) :

Part A: Indian Constitution at Work
1. Philosophy of the Constitution

The making of the Constitution, the constituent Assembly, Procedural achievements and Philosophy of the Constitution.

2. Rights in the Indian Constitution

The importance of Rights, Fundamental Rights in the Indian Constitution, Directive Principles of State Policy, Relationship between Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles.


3. Election and Representation

Elections and Democracy, Election System in India, Reservation of Constituencies, Free and Fair Elections, Electoral Reforms.


4. Legislature

Why do we need a Parliament? Two Houses of Parliament. Functions and Power of the Parliament, Legislative functions, control over Executive. Parliamentary committees. Self-regulation.


5. Executive

What is an Executive? Different Types of Executive. Parliamentary Executive in India, Prime Minister and Council of Ministers. Permanent Executive: Bureaucracy.


6. Judiciary

Why do we need an Independent Judiciary? Structure of the Judiciary, Judicial Activism, Judiciary and Rights, Judiciary and Parliament.


7. Federalism

What is Federalism? Federalism in the Indian Constitution, Federalism with a strong Central Government, conflicts in India's federal system, Special Provisions.


8. Local Governments

Why do we need Local Governments? Growth of Local Government in India, 73rd and 74th Amendments, implementation of 73rd and 74th Amendments.


9. Constitution as a Living Document

Are Constitutions static? The procedure to amend the Constitution. Why have there been so many amendments? Basic Structure and Evolution of the Constitution. Constitution as a Living Document.


Part B: Political Theory
10. Political Theory: An Introduction

What is Politics? What do we study in Political Theory? Putting Political Theory to practice. Why should we study Politial Theory?


11. Freedom

The Ideal of Freedom. What is Freedom? Why do we need constraints? Harm principle. Negative and Positive Liberty.


12. Equality

Significance of Equality. What is Equality? Various dimensions of Equality. How can we promote Equality?


13. Social Justice

What is Justice? Just Distribution. Justice as fairness. Pursuing Social Justice.


14. Rights

What are Rights? Where do Rights come from? Legal Rights and the State. Kinds of Rights. Rights and Responsibilities.


15. Citizenship

What is citizenship? Citizen and Nation, Universal Citizenship, Global Citizenship.


16. Nationalism

Nations and Nationalism, National Self-determination, Nationalism and Pluralism.


17. Secularism

What is Secularism? What is Secular State? The Western and the Indian approaches to Secularism. Criticisms and Rationale of Indian Secularism.


18. Peace

What is Peace? Can violence ever promote peace? Peace and the State. Different Approaches to the pursuit of peace. Contemporary challenges to peace.


19. Development

What is development? Criticism of the dominant. Development Model. Alternative conceptions of development.


Prescribed Books:
Indian Constitution at work, Class XI, Published by NCERT
Political Theory, Class XI, Published by NCERT

The writings of French philosophers like Voltaire, Rousseau, and Diderot, to name a few, are models for social science, political and social criticism, and political analysis. Their role in inspiring the French revolution had a significant impact on the global spread of contemporary democracy. Although, neither Machiavelli nor Thomas Hobbes believed in the divine right of monarchs, they both held the view that a strong central authority, such as a monarchy, was required to control the intrinsic selfishness of the individual. Hobbes is best known for his notion of the social contract.

In contrast, John Locke, the author of Two Treatises of Government and a non-believer in the divine right of kings, allied with Aquinas and opposed both Machiavelli and Hobbes by upholding Aristotle's principle that, as a social animal, man aspires to be happy in a condition of social harmony. Locke argued that man enters this world with a mind that is essentially a tabula rasa, in contrast to Aquinas' preponderant belief in the salvation of the soul from original sin. Locke disagrees with Hobbes' idea of an absolute monarchy, arguing that natural law is based on equality and reason and seeks to preserve humankind's ability to live in peace.

The Enlightenment's pursuit of reason gave rise to new Western intellectual foundations, which paved the way for laws emphasising the separation of religion and state. The social sciences were founded on the idea that general social theories could be based on principles similar to those that dominated the material sciences. The social environment could be used as a kind of laboratory for studying politics. "The science of politics, like most other sciences, has experienced enormous advancement," Alexander Hamilton stated in 1787, as mentioned in numbers 9 and 51 of The Federalist Papers. The abbé de Saint-Pierre and the marquis d'Argenson, both philosophers and linked enlightenment reformers, both described politics as a science.

Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin were two other significant Enlightenment players in American politics. In the late 19th century, the Darwinian theories of natural selection and evolution had a big impact. World War I destroyed the assumption that society was steadily improving.

The first generation of American political scientists, who lived from 1882-1900, had as their credo that "politics is past history and history is present politics."


The phrase, which was created by the Oxford professor Edward Augustus Freeman, was inscribed on the wall of the seminar room at Johns Hopkins University, where the first extensive training of political scientists and Americans began. It was founded by Westel Woodbury Willoughby, Herbert Baxter Adams at Johns Hopkins, John Burgess and William Dunning at Columbia, Woodrow Wilson at Princeton, and Albert Bushnell Hart at Harvard.

Their graduate seminars had a strong historical component that frequently reflected their participation in seminars at German universities. Yet as time went on, academic generations after them gradually reduced the history and purposeful fashion. The physical sciences were the inspiration for the second generation.

Political science developed into a respected academic discipline during the Progressive Era in the United States (1890s –1920s), as well as an applied science that was welcomed as a way to apply knowledge to issues of governance. In terms of applied political science, Woodrow Wilson, Charles A. Beard, and Charles E. Merriam were among the most well-known figures. To implement the most recent findings, numerous cities and governments set up research bureaus.

The largest professional association for political scientists was founded in 1903 and is called the American Political Science Association. An empirical method known as behavioralism ( Behaviouralism ) first appeared in the United States in the 1930s. It placed a focus on using an objective, quantitative method to understand and forecast political behaviour. Guy explains, "Behavioralism stressed the methodical analysis of all discernible political behaviour forms. Yet it also meant using exact scientific and statistical techniques to standardise testing and try to conduct a value-free investigation of the political environment.


Political science's primary function, according to behaviouralists, is to obtain and analyse data as thoroughly and impartially as feasible. Political science should be studied similarly to how hard sciences are studied, according to Petro, p. 6. It is connected to the development of behavioural sciences that were inspired by the natural sciences.

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The term "behavioralism" was acknowledged as a component of a larger scientific trend that was taking place concurrently throughout all of the social sciences, which are now known as the "behavioural sciences," as Guy puts it. This indicates that behavioralism seeks to explain behaviour from an objective, impartial standpoint. Instead of focusing on the traits of organisations like legislatures, executive branches, and courts, behavioralism looks at the behaviour, acts, and acts of individuals in various social contexts and tries to explain how that behaviour connects to politics.

According to Gunnell, American political scientists have adopted the concept of system as their primary theoretical framework since the 1950s. Although the concept was first introduced in sociology and other social sciences, David Easton clarified how it may be used most effectively in behavioural research on politics. 

Political science was not a top focus for the academics who ran Canada's institutions up until the 1950s because they were trained in Britain. Political economy research was favoured in Canada. Following 1950, younger academics began obtaining American PhDs at an increasing rate, and Canadian departments supported behaviourism and quantification.

Compared to American institutions, political science is practised on a lower scale in European universities. Political studies were traditionally taught by law or philosophy teachers. The European Consortium for Political Research ( ECPR ) is a unifying force due to American behavioralism impulses. It supports a number of scholarly publications, such as the European Political Science Review, European Journal of Political Research, and European Political Science ( EPS ), all of which date back to 2001 ( EPSR ).

Political studies were conducted in the Soviet Union under the cover of several other fields, such as theory of state and law, regional studies, international relations, labour movement studies, "critique of bourgeois theories," etc. From 1955, Soviet academics have participated in the International Political Science Association ( IPSA ), since 1960 by the Soviet Association of Political and State Studies.

The 11th IPSA World Congress was held in Moscow in 1979. Political science was tightly controlled by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union until the final years of the Soviet Union, which caused mistrust in the discipline. Political scientists were accused by anti-communists of being "fake" scientists and of having worked for the previous government.

The Institute of Current Social Theories and the Institute of International Affairs, two significant institutes involved in political science, were dissolved after the fall of the Soviet Union, leaving the majority of their members without employment. The initial wave of anticommunist sentiment and ideological assaults targeted these institutions. Professional political scientists from all throughout Russia are united by the Russian Political Science Association today.

The Arthashastra of Chanakya, one of the earliest works of political science in India, was composed in the third century B.C. The Arthashastra is a book on political philosophy that covers a variety of topics, including economic policy, military tactics, and international relations.

Three of the Hinduism's four Vedas, the Mahabharata, and the Pali Canon are the first political documents that come to mind when considering the forerunners of ancient Indian politics. The Rigveda, Samhitas, and Bramanas are among the Vedic writings. The Manusmriti was published about 200 years after Chanakya's period and quickly rose to prominence as another important political work for India at the time.

Contrary to popular opinion, Taoism and Confucianism are important political ideas as well as major religions. Together with legalism and mohism, these political ideas also come from Spring and Autumn Era Ancient China. This time in Chinese history was known as the Golden Era of Chinese philosophy because it gave rise to a wide variety of concepts that were openly discussed.

According to Sima Tan, there are six traditional schools of thought in Chinese philosophy, and the four political philosophies stated above are among them. Confucianism dominated Chinese political thought during the Imperial Era and changed with the times, being greatly influenced by Legalism.

Writing commentary on Aristotle's works allowed Middle Eastern Aristotelians like Avicenna and Maimonides, to continue the school's traditions of empiricism and analysis. Later, Arabia turned away from Aristotle's political science philosophy and shifted its attention to Plato's work, Republic. With this change, Republic became the cornerstone of Judeo-Islamic political thought, as seen by Al-Farabi and Averroes' writings. Political analysis can be evident in works like Omar Khayyam's Rubaiyat and Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, which were written in mediaeval Iran.

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Following is the outline of the Central Board of Secondary Education CBSE / NCERT National Council for Educational Research and Training prescribed syllabus for subject Political Science for Class 12 ( Class 12th - XII ) :


Part A: Contemporary World Politics
1. Cold War and Non-aligned Movement

Emergence of two power blocs/Bipolarity, Non-aligned Movement (NAM).


2. The End of Bipolarity

Disintegration of Soviet Union, Unipolar World, Middle East Crisis - Afghanistan, Gulf War, Democratic Politics and Democratization - CIS and the 21st Century (Arab Spring).


3. New Centres of Power

Organizations: European Union, ASEAN, SAARC, BRICS.

Nations: Russia, China, Israel, India.


4. South Asia and the Contemporary World

Conflicts and efforts for Peace and Democratization in South Asia: Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Maldives.


5. United Nations and its Organizations

Principle Organs, Key Agencies: UNESCO, UNICEF, WHO, ILO, Security Council and the Need for its Expansion.


6. Security in Contemporary World

Security: Meaning and Types; Terrorism.


7. Environment and Natural Resources

Environmental Movements, Global Warming and Climate Change, Conservation of Natural Resources.


8. Globalization

Globalization: Meaning, Manifestations and Debates.


Part B: Politics in India Since Independence
9. Challenges of Nation-Building

Nation and Nation Building
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and Integration of States
Legacy of Partition: Challenge of Refugee, Resettlement, Kashmir Issue, Nehru’s Approach to  Nation - Building
Political Conflicts over Language and Linguistic Organization of States.


10. Planning and Development

Changing nature of India’s Economic Development
Planning Commission and Five year Plans
National Development Council, NITI Aayog.


11. India's Foreign Policy

Principles of Foreign Policy; India’s Changing Relations with Other Nations: US, Russia, China, Israel
India’s Relations with its Neighbours: Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Myanmar
India’s Nuclear Programme

12. Parties and the Party Systems in India

Congress System
Bi-party System
Multi-party Coalition System


13. Democratic Resurgence

Jayaprakash Narayan and Total Revolution
Ram Manohar Lohia and Socialism
Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay and Integral Humanism
National Emergency
Democratic Upsurges - Participation of the Adults, Backwards and Youth


14. Social and New Social Movements in India

Social vs. New Social Movements
Farmer’s movements
Worker’s Movements
Women’s Movements
Ecological Movements

15. Regional Aspirations

Rise of Regional Parties
Punjab Crisis
The Kashmir issue
Movements for Autonomy


16. Indian Politics: Trends and Developments

Era of Coalitions: National Front, United Front, United Progressive Alliance [UPA] - I & II, National Democratic Alliance [NDA] - I, II, III & IV,

Issues of Development and Governance.

Political Thought - A Relook : 

The chronological development of political thought as well as its conceptual and methodological evolution are all included in the history of political thought. Philosophy, jurisprudencelaw, history, psychology, civics, geography, geospatial technology GT, social sciences, economics, commerce, sociology, global financial accounting, business studies, entrepreneurship, EVS environmental sciences, IP informatics practices, DS Data Science and political science are among the academic fields that cross when studying the history of political ideas. 


Ancient Greece is often cited as the birthplace of Western political theory specifically to Athenian democracy and Ancient Greek philosophy. It is customary to highlight the political philosophy of intellectuals like Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle as being particularly significant and influential in such works. Comparatively, non - Western political traditions and histories have frequently been under represented in academic studies.

These non - Western schools of political thought have been found, among other places, in ancient India and China, particularly in the form of early Chinese philosophy, where the Arthashastra represents an early treatise on governance and politics. In the seventh century, as Islam quickly spread over the world, another major non - Western school of political thinking came into being. Academic periodicals and university programmes have both contributed to the study of history related to political thinking.

China entered a period of peace and prosperity around 770 BCE, which facilitated the emergence of the so - called Hundred Schools of Thought, the most important of which was Confucius'. His way of thought was strongly rooted in the traditional Chinese world view, which placed the utmost importance on the concepts of duty, loyalty, and respect. He held that a leader who embodies these values may change people and society through reciprocal treatment and moral example.


It is because society will respond to such good leaders by imitating them. He succinctly put it like way : "If your desire is for good, the people will be good. The moral character of the ruler is the wind; the moral character of those beneath him is the grass. When the wind blows, the grass bends."

The patriarchal family had to serve as the model for society, which had to be hierarchically structured and ruled by an absolute monarch. Confucius also advocated for a meritocratic elite of administrators and advisers to be hired by the government through civil service examinations. Later Chinese intellectuals like Mozi shared his views on meritocracy and setting an example for others.


However, they disagreed with the family - model of government since they thought it would be nepotistic. Yet, Mencius later supported his viewpoints. Legalism, an alternative Chinese ideology, asserted that authoritarian discipline, not virtue, was essential for the state's administration. 

Ancient Rome and Greece are where European political philosophy first emerged. Around 600 BCE, individuals in these civilizations started to think about issues related to social organisation as part of their broader discussions of morality and how to live a decent life. Plato enjoyed the freedom to develop his ideas during the Athenian democracy's intellectual heyday in the fifth century, despite the fact that he abhorred democracy and every other form of government at the time.

This was due to Plato's contention that the state should foster the virtues essential for good living, but that the existing political structures of monarchy, oligarchy, and democracy all served to advance the interests of the powerful. Latter were those who were unaware of these virtues and would only pursue honour and wealth, resulting in conflict and injustice. In the Republic, Plato suggested that this be changed and that philosopher monarchs, who would understand how to live a decent life, should take the throne in its place.

Chanakya ( about 4th century BCE ) provided helpful suggestions on managing the government in India's Arthashastra. He also thought that a leader's virtue and their advisors' merit were crucial. He further asserted that after defeating their adversaries with the most effective means at their disposal, monarchs should "substitute their virtues for the defeated adversary's vices, and where the enemy was good they shall be twice as good." Similar subjects were covered by Manu before him in his Manusmriti.

In its entirety, Augustine of Hippo's early Christian philosophy ( and psychology ) was a reworking of Plato for a Christian audience. The fundamental shift brought about by Christianity was to temper Roman stoicism and the philosophy of justice. It was also to place an emphasis on the state's duty in demonstrating mercy as a moral example. In addition, Augustine taught that a person was either a citizen of the City of God ( Civitas Dei ) or the City of Man and was not a member of his or her city ( Civitas Terrena ).


After the First Fall of Rome, many Christian Romans believed that the Christian perspective might be realised on Earth, but Augustine's important work City of God opposed this idea.

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European political philosophy during the Middle Ages was greatly influenced by Christian thought. The Western church similarly put philosophy below theology, which had many similarities to Islamic attitudes. St. Thomas Aquinas, who helped reintroduce Aristotle's works — all but the Politics, which William of Moerbeke translated directly from Greek to Latin — had been preserved by Muslim academics, together with Averroes' commentaries — was arguably the most significant political philosopher of mediaeval Europe.


The scholastic political theory that ruled European thought for centuries was established by Aquinas's use of them. The Magna Carta, which was signed in 1215, established the idea of constitutional rights like habeas corpus. Power dynamics and ideas of where power originated in the Mediterranean region were significantly impacted by the rise of Islam, which was founded on both the Qur'an and Muhammad.


Early Islamic philosophy emphasised the unbreakable bond between science and religion as well as the quest for truth through ijtihad; in this sense, all philosophy was "political" because it had direct consequences for governing structures. The Mutazilite philosophers, who had a more Greek perspective and were backed by a secular nobility seeking freedom of action outside of the Caliphate, opposed this approach. But by the end of the Middle Ages, the Asharite interpretation of Islam had largely prevailed.


The Qur'an and the Sunnah, or the sayings and deeds of Muhammad, were the basic foundations of Islamic political thought. The famous Islamic philosophers al-Kindi ( Alkindus ), al-Farabi ( Abunaser ), bn Sina ( Avicenna ), Ibn Bajjah ( Avempace ), Ibn Rushd ( Averroes ), and Ibn Khaldun are regarded to have been the only ones to have focused on this particular topic.


An analysis is based on the political notions of Islam, such as kudrah, sultan, ummah, simaa, and even the "core" elements of the Qur'an, such as ibada, din, rab, and ilah. So, many more jurists and ulama submitted political concepts and theories in addition to the ideas of the Muslim political philosophers. ​For instance, the Khawarij's concepts of the Khilafa and Ummah in the very early years of Islamic history or Shia Islam's conception of the Imam are seen as examples of political philosophy.


In the seventh and eighth century, conflicts between Ehl-i Sunna and Shia had a distinctly political undertone. Ibn Khaldun, an Arab scientist who lived in the 14th century, is regarded as one of the finest political theorists. The British philosopher and anthropologist Ernest Gellner regarded Ibn Khaldun's description of government as the best in the annals of political theory: "an institution which prevents injustice other than that which it commits itself."

After roughly a century of theological political thinking in Europe, secular political philosophy started to emerge. Niccol Machiavelli's The Prince, written between 1511 and 1512 and published in 1532, after Machiavelli's death, was one of the most important books throughout this developing era. The Discourses, a thorough examination of the classical era, and that work both had a significant impact on Western modern political philosophy.

Some people, like Jean-Jacques Rousseau, would read The Prince as satire that was intended to criticise the Medici after they retook Florence and drove Machiavelli out of Florence. Machiavelli backed the Republic of Florence rather than the Medici family oligarchy, despite the fact that the work was intended for the Medici family in an attempt to persuade them to release him from exile.

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In any case, Machiavelli offers a realistic and somewhat consequentialist vision of politics in which good and evil are merely tools for achieving a specific goal, namely the upkeep of political power. During the English Renaissance at the beginning of the 17th century, Thomas Hobbes, who is well-known for his notion of the social contract, goes on to develop this viewpoint.

With his work Two Treatises of Government, John Locke in particular typified this new era of political theory. Locke makes a state-of-nature theory in it, which directly supports his view of how political evolution happens and how it can be based on contractual duty. Sir Robert Filmer's patriarchally based political philosophy was challenged by John Locke in favour of a natural system based on nature in a specific system.

The discovery of other American societies, the shifting demands of political societies, especially in the wake of the English Civil War, the American Revolution, and the French Revolution, and new theories about what the human being was and is, as well as about the definition of reality and how it was perceived, all contributed to the Enlightenment period's development of new questions and insights by thinkers like Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Montesquieu, and John Locke.

Two fundamental problems drove these theorists: first, what right or need does it give people to form states, and second, what is the finest possible shape for a state. To answer these fundamental problems, it was necessary to distinguish between the terms "state" and "government." It was determined that the term "state" would refer to a group of lasting organisations that would distribute power and provide justification for its use.


The term "government" would be used to describe the particular persons who were in charge of making the laws and regulations that bound all citizens, including the government, at any given moment. It encompasses political structures and influential outcomes of the inter dependencies among various facets of human evolution and civilisations.

Although some political scientists, philosophers, historians, and cultural anthropologists have argued that most political action in any given society occurs outside of its state and that there are societies that are not organised into states but which nevertheless must be considered in terms of politics, this conceptual distinction still exists in political science.

These theories had a significant impact on political and economic relations because they replaced the guild concept with the theory of free trade. Additionally, Protestant churches affiliated with each nation-state challenged the dominance of the Roman Catholic Church in theology and preached in the local language, which the Roman Catholic Church frequently denounced angrily. It took a long time for these concepts to reach cultures outside of Europe.

Societies underwent a profound upheaval throughout the Industrial Revolution. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels consequently rose to prominence as the earliest proponents of socialism and communism. Vladimir Lenin expanded on their concepts, creating the Leninism philosophy. These concepts would be refined further under Joseph Stalin into Marxism - Leninism and implemented in the Soviet Union and later the Eastern Bloc.

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This school of thinking would also give rise to Maoism, Ho Chi Minh Thinking, Hoxhaism, and Titoism throughout the Cold War. The concept of imperialism went hand in hand with the advent of colonialism, which was made possible by industrialization. Eventually, anti-imperialist ideologies like Gandhianism and Nasserism would oppose this.

Political Economy - A Review :

Political economy is the study of the interactions between political systems, such as law, institutions, social science & human systems, Sociology,  government, and economic systems, such as markets and national economies. Systems like labour markets and financial markets, as well as phenomena like growth, distribution, inequality, and trade are well analysed. Additionally, how these are impacted by institutions, laws, and government policies, are all well studied phenomena within the subject. 


It has its roots in the 16th century and is the forerunner of the contemporary field of economics. Modern political economy is seen as an inter disciplinary field that draws on both political science and contemporary economics theory. Political economy is a branch of western moral philosophy that dates back to the 16th century. The term "political economy" is derived from the Greek words "polity" and "economy," which both refer to the management of households.


Although French physiocrats like François Quesnay ( 1694-1774 ) and Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot came before the British scholars Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, and David Ricardo in developing political economics, they are typically given credit for the field's initial works ( 1727 – 1781 ). With the development of mathematical modelling and the release of Alfred Marshall's renowned textbook in 1890, the term "economics" gradually started to take the place of "political economy" in the late 19th century.


Prior to this, William Stanley Jevons, a supporter of the application of mathematics to the field, argued in favour of the term "economics" for its conciseness and the goal of it being "the recognised name of a science." According to measurement metrics from Google Ngram Viewer, use of the term "economics" started to replace "political economy" around 1910 and took over as the favoured phrase by 1920. Clara Mattei, an economist, claims that this transition was caused by the growing acceptance of classical liberalism as jurisprudence or the natural law.

It remained during the First World War despite evidence to the contrary. Currently, the term "economics" typically refers to the in - depth examination of the economy without taking into account other political and social factors, whereas the term "political economy" designates a different and competing methodology, household management. Although French physiocrats like François Quesnay ( 1694 - 1774 ) and Anne - Robert - Jacques Turgot came before the British scholars Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, and David Ricardo in developing political economics, they are typically given credit for the field's initial works ( 1727 – 1781 ).

Political economy was originally defined as the study of the circumstances under which production or consumption, within certain bounds, was organised in nation - states. In this way, political economy, which derives from the Greek words oikos ( meaning "home" ) and nomos, increased the emphasis on economics ( meaning jurisprudence or "law" or "order" ).


Political economy was designed to describe the laws of wealth production at the state level, just like economics is concerned with maintaining order in the family. The famous book Traité de l'economie politique by Antoine de Montchrétien, which is translated as "Political Economy," is credited with introducing the term "économie politique" to France for the first time in 1615.

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Several modern academics credit Ibn Khaldun, a Tunisian Arab historian and sociologist who worked on defining "profit" and "sustenance," or surplus and that required for the reproduction of classes, respectively, in modern political economy, as the originator of this subject. In his greatest book, the Muqaddimah, he further develops these concepts and asks for the development of a science to explain society. According to Al-Muqaddimah, which is regarded as a modern forerunner to Classical Economic thinking, “Civilization and its well-being, as well as business prosperity, depends on productivity and people’s efforts in all directions in their own interest and profit”.

The French physiocrats were the first significant political economists, however Adam Smith, John Stuart Mill, David Ricardo, Henry George, and Karl Marx generally earn considerably more credit for their intellectual answers to the physiocrats. In 1754, the University of Naples Federico II in southern Italy created the first political economy professorship in history. The first professor with tenure was the philosopher from Naples, Antonio Genovesi.

At the University of Vienna in Austria, Joseph von Sonnenfels was given the position of Political Economics chair in 1763. At the East India Company College in Haileybury, Hertfordshire, Thomas Malthus was appointed England's first political economy professor in 1805. Currently, the term "political economy" refers to a variety of inter connected methods for analysing economic behaviour, ranging from the integration of economics with other disciplines to the application of new, fundamental hypotheses that contradict traditional economic assumptions.

Political institutions, the political environment, and the economic system — whether capitalist, socialist, communist, or mixed — all influence one another, and political economy is most often used to describe inter disciplinary studies that combine economics, sociology, and political science to explain this relationship.

Political economy has three sub - areas according to the Journal of Economic Literature classification codes: (1) the role of government and / or class and power relationships in resource allocation for each type of economic system; (2) international political economy, which examines the effects of international relations on the economy; and (3) economic models of political or exploitative class processes. There is typically a difference made between comparative political economy and international political economy within the discipline of political science that is studied by comparative politics scholars.

A micro - foundations theory with strong ties to political economy is public choice theory. In contrast to the view attributed to older mainstream economists that government officials aim to maximise individual utility from some form of social welfare function, both models portray voters, legislators, and bureaucrats as acting primarily in their own interests. As a result, economists and political scientists frequently equate political economy with methods based on rational - choice assumptions.

Political Economics principles are leveraged, particularly when using game theory to study phenomena outside the purview of traditional economics, such as complex decision - making and government failure. In these contexts, the term "positive political economy" is frequently used. Analysis of public policy subjects like economic regulation, monopoly, rent - seeking, market protection, institutional corruption, and distributional politics are among other "classic" topics.

The impact of elections on the selection of economic policy, factors that affect election outcomes and forecasting models, political business cycles, central bank independence, and the politics of large deficits are all included in empirical analysis. The modelling of economic policy and political institutions has recently focused on the interactions between agents and these institutions, especially the seeming contradiction between economic policy and economists' advice when viewed through the perspective of transaction costs.

The area has grown since the middle of the 1990s, helped in part by new cross - national data sets that allow testing of theories regarding comparative economic systems, social science systems and institutions. The division of countries, the history, geography, civics, sociology, laws, and historical development of political institutions and their rate of change in relation to economic development, financial markets, and regulation, the significance of institutions, backwardness, reform, and transition economies, the contribution of culture, ethnicity, and gender to the explanation of economic outcomes, macroeconomic policy, the environment, fairness, microeconomics and the relationship between constitutional provisions and economic policy, are just a few of the theoretical and empirical topics that have been covered.

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According to the traditions of Marxian political economy, new political economics may consider economic ideology as the phenomenon to explain. In other words, it views economic ideas and behaviour not as frameworks for analysis but as beliefs and actions that must themselves be explained, according to Charles S. Maier's suggestion that a political economy approach "interrogates economic doctrines to disclose their sociological and political premises."


This methodology is applied in Colin Hay's The Political Economy of New Labour, Manchester University Press, 1999, and Andrew Gamble's The Free Economy and the Strong State, Palgrave Macmillan, 1988. Also, it influences a lot of the articles in New Political Economy, an international publication established in 1996 by researchers at Sheffield University. 


International political economy ( IPE ) is a multidisciplinary field that examines how different actors act. Chris Brown, an expert in international relations, claims that Susan Strange, a professor at the University of Warwick, "nearly single - handedly created international political economics as an area of study." These methods are connected to the American magazine International Organization, which was edited by Robert Keohane, Peter J. Katzenstein, and Stephen Krasner in the 1970s and which later rose to prominence among IPE journals.


They are linked to the publication The Review of International Political Economy as well. There is also a more critical school of IPE, led by Matthew Watson and Robert W. Cox, and influenced by theorists like Antonio Gramsci and Karl Polanyi. Anthropologists, sociologists, and geographers use the term "political economy" to describe how political or economic regimes develop, mostly at the level of states or regional government, but sometimes within smaller social groupings, social studies and social networks.


The investigation of factors lacking a common economic value, such as the political economy of language, gender, or religion, frequently draws on ideas from Marxian criticisms of capital because these regimes shape and are shaped by the organisation of both social and economic capital. Such methods build on the theories of André Gunder Frank and Immanuel Wallerstein's and Immanuel Latour's neo-Marxian studies on development and under development.


Political economy has been used by historians to examine how individuals and organisations with similar economic interests have utilised politics in the past to change things that benefited their interests. A contemporary endeavour in legal study to directly interact with political economics literature is called political economy and law. Legal realists like Robert Hale and intellectuals like John Commons engaged political economy - related topics in the 1920s and 1930s.


Lawyers affiliated with the Chicago School of law adopted some economics - related academic traditions in the latter half of the 20th century. Legal scholars, particularly those who study international law, have begun to overtly interact with the arguments, research methods, and numerous themes found in literature on political economy after the crisis of 2007, though.


Thomas Piketty called for the reintroduction of political consideration and understanding of political science in general into the field of economics as a way to strengthen the discipline and address its flaws, which had become apparent in the wake of the 2008 financial crisis. King's College London became the official home of the only Department of Political Economics in the entire United Kingdom in 2010. This academic unit was justified by the claims that "politics and economics are intricately intertwined" and that "it is impossible to fully comprehend political processes without examining the economic framework in which politics occurs."


Professors Tony Payne and Colin Hay established the Sheffield Political Economics Research Institute ( SPERI ) at The University of Sheffield in 2012. It was developed as a way to combine political and economic studies of capitalism, which its creators believed were insufficient when studied separately to fully understand the 2008 financial crisis. 


The Political Economics UK Group, often known as PolEconUK, was founded as a research group in the study of political economy in 2017. It has a yearly conference and counts Oxford, Cambridge, King's College London, Warwick University, and the London School of Economics among its affiliates.


Political Theology - An overview :

The phrase "political theology" has been used in a wide range of contexts by authors looking at various facets of Christians' interactions with politics. It has been used to explore Thomas Aquinas' De Regno: On Kingship, Augustine of Hippo's City of God, and Augustine of Hippo's Summa Theologica. It has also been used to describe the writings of Protestant reformers Martin Luther and John Calvin as well as the Eastern Orthodox understanding of symphonia.


Christian political thinking has a long history of equating politics, statecraft, and worldly power with the more general category of carnal literalism, labelled as "Semitic" by the Pauline tradition. ​With the distinction between Jew and Christian being mapped onto the difference between mortal and eternal, private and public, tyrant and legitimate king, this tradition fostered a tendency to analyse political error in terms of Judaism.


Due to this history, Jews have frequently been identified as the foes of the political ideal of transcendence, and possibly still are. Political theology is a field of study that dates back to the 20th century even though there have been debates about the political dimensions of Christianity, Islam, Confucianism, and other faiths for millennia.

The term's more contemporary usage is frequently linked to the writings of renowned German political theorist Carl Schmitt. Schmitt maintained in his article Politische Theologie ( 1922 ), written in the midst of the turmoil of the German Weimar Republic, that the primary ideas of contemporary politics were secularised versions of earlier theological ideas. Schmitt's book was a response to Mikhail Bakunin, who had used the phrase in his 1871 work "The Political Theology of Mazzini and the International."


He made the case in Leviathan, drawing on Thomas Hobbes, that the state exists to uphold its own integrity in order to keep society in order during times of crisis. The political world of the clergy by Ted Jelen and Clyde Wilcox, respectively, and The Gathering Storm in the Churches by Jeffrey K. Hadden and Harold Quinley, respectively, have been used to distinguish between the leftist focus on collective "social justice" and the rightist traditional concern with individual "moral reform" in political theology.


While Schmitt may have coined the phrase and its current usage, Kwok Pui-lan has argued that political theologies were likewise evolving elsewhere in the world, including in Asia, following very different trajectories. For instance, the Protestant Wu Yaozong in China in the 1930s argued that both China and the globe needed a social revolution to be saved. This would also apply to the Protestants' involvement in early 20th-century Korean nationalism.


In recent years, numerous influential non-Christian philosophers, including Jürgen Habermas, Odo Marquard, Giorgio Agamben, Simon Critchley, and Slavoj Zizek, have written extensively on the subject of political theology. Islamic political theology has also been the subject of increasing discussion since the turn of the twenty - first century, particularly in historically Christian - dominated Western societies.


Political theology emerged as a significant issue in legal theory in the 1990s and early 2000s, particularly in constitutional law, international law, and legal history. The literature strongly references the work of Ernesto Laclau, Carl Schmitt, and other political philosophers, as well as current political events like the "War on Terror."


"Public theology" is a different phrase that frequently fills a comparable area in academic discourse. It is argued that public theology is more focused on civil society and civics, whereas political theology is more focused on the state or the government.


Chinese government officials, academics, and religious leaders have all responded to the topic of the link between religion and politics in political theology. This was structured over a period of two millennia based on a Confucian view of politics and religion, which was frequently described in terms of Confucian political philosophy. Throughout its history, Chinese Buddhism has offered a challenge to the political influence of Confucianism at various times. Communist interpretations of religion, however, have dominated the conversation since the middle of the 20th century.

The Church of the East's interactions with the Emperor Taizong and Jesuit missionaries in the Ming court represent one of Christianity's early  meetings in the nation throughout the imperial period. Yet following the founding of the Republic of China and People's Republic of China, it has grown the most in the 20th and 21st centuries, particularly with the emergence of the Three - Self Patriotic Movement and house churches.

German political theology has been heavily influenced by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel ( 1770 – 1831 ) throughout much of its history. This is especially evident in the writings of theologian Johann Baptist Metz, a Roman Catholic born in 1928 who extensively examined the idea of political theology. "But, faced with conditions in God's creation that cry out to heaven, how can the theology of the creator God avoid the charge of apathy unless it takes up the language of a suffering God," he wrote in support of the idea of a "suffering God" who shared the anguish of his creation. As a result, Metz creates a theology that is associated with Marxism.

He critiques what he called "bourgeois Christianity" and thinks that because of its entanglement with bourgeois religion, the Christian Gospel has lost some of its credibility. From this angle, he develops apologetics, or foundational theology, in his book Faith in History and Society. Jürgen Moltmann and Dorothee Sölle were two more important German political theologians. The idea of a suffering God is crucial to Moltmann's theological theology, just as it is in Metz' writing. Ernst Bloch, a Marxist philosopher, had a significant influence on Moltmann's political theology. Liberation theology also had a significant impact on Moltmann, Sölle, and Metz.

The Frankfurt School of critical theory, in particular Walter Benjamin and the Frankfurt School's broader critique of modernity, was another early influence. Odo Marquard's essay "In Favor of Polytheism," published in 1979, sparked debate and discussion. It makes the case that polytheism is where the concept of the division of powers originated and suggests a political theology based on "enlightened polymythical thinking."

In the Middle East, Christian scholars and leaders have developed a religious approach to political issues called Christian political theology. Political theologians attempt to strike a compromise between the needs of a volatile area and the complex but lengthy history of Christianity in the Middle East. Due to the tiny number of Christian minority in the Middle East, this has led to a range of political theologies that is disproportional. The Middle East's political theologies are influenced by the region's significance to Christians globally, both historically and as a source of doctrinal authority for many churches.

Many Christian leaders approach political theology with a survival mentality. Many Arab Christians consider themselves to be the heirs of a strong Christian heritage that is under threat from local upheaval and persecution because of their faith. Their political theology differs in that their primary political objective is survival.

In order to solicit support for humanitarian or political causes, Arab Christian leaders have occasionally used both challenges to their own denominations and more general appeals to Christian unity. At times, Christian politicians play down their religion in public to keep peace with their Muslim neighbours. Many Christians in the Middle East saw secular politics in the middle of the 20th century as a way to escape their historical position as a minority group in the Islamic world.

Christians were active participants in the pan - Arab nationalism movement in the middle of the 20th century, and nationalist governments all over the region valued their contributions because of their familiarity with Western politics and generally high educational aspirations. One notable example is Michel Aflaq, an Eastern Orthodox Christian who organised the first Ba'ath party in Damascus in the 1940s with the help of students. He thought that the greatest way for Christians to succeed in the Middle East was through nationalism, thus Christians should accept Islam as a part of their cultural identity.


Political theology in sub-Saharan Africa, which sprang out of nationalist movements in the middle to late twentieth century elsewhere and the struggle against apartheid in South Africa, examines the connection between theology and politics. Sub - Saharan Africa has a growing Christian population, which has raised awareness of Christian solutions to the persistent problems of poverty, violence, and war in the area. 

Theologian and sociologist Jean - Marc Éla from Cameroon claims that African Christianity "must be formulated from the difficulties of our people, from their pleasures, from their sufferings, from their dreams and from their disappointments today." Postcolonial theology, liberation theology, and global black theology all have a significant impact on African theology.

Similar to Metz in terms of theology's application in daily life, Reinhold Niebuhr likewise established a theology. Niebuhr served as the president of the Socialist Party of America in the 1930s; even though he eventually left the organisation, socialist ideology played a significant role in his development of Christian realism. Moral Man and Immoral Society: A Study of Ethics and Politics is the Niebuhr text that most demonstrates his relationship with political theology (1932).

Stanley Hauerwas is one of the most significant theologians of the modern era, however he prefers to refer to his work as "theological politics." Both Reinhold and H. Richard Niebuhr's political theologies have been openly criticised by Hauerwas, who has also regularly criticised Christians who seek political influence and ally themselves with secular political ideologies. He has also been a harsh critic of liberal democracy, capitalism, and militarism, contending that they are all incompatible with Christian beliefs.

Understanding Political Ethics :

Making moral judgements about political conduct and political agents is the practise of political ethics, usually referred to as political morality or public ethics. It addresses two topics. The first relates to public officials and their procedures, and is often known as the ethics of process or the ethics of office. The second category is the ethics of policy also known as ethics and public policy, which deals with assessments of laws and policies.

When the term's origins and steady growth are considered, the idea of political morality can be clearly comprehended. Historically, the fundamental ideals and standards of political morality have been formed from the concepts of fairness. 

John Rawls, however, advocates the idea that, in the end, the political notion of justice is founded on the common good of the individual rather than on the moral standards one is obliged to uphold. People also rely on their own perceived definition of morality when seeking to assess the morality of political matters. There are various moral pillars from which the idea of morality itself comes. People's perceptions of political activities and political agents are influenced by morality when viewed through the prism of these tenets.

One of the most well-known political philosophers who discussed political ethics and later subverted them was Niccol Machiavelli. He disagreed with Aristotle in that he thought a political leader would be forced to act evilly in order to preserve his position of power.

A variation of this concept has been reframed as the dirty hands problem in modern democracies. Michael Walzer, who made this argument most famously, claims that the problem results in a contradiction where the politician must occasionally "do wrong to do good." Though justified, the politician's use of violence to stop further bloodshed is nonetheless reprehensible. Walzer's point of view has drawn flak.

Some detractors argue that the politician is either warranted or not. There is nothing wrong, even though he might feel bad, if justified. Others claim that regardless of the purposes, some of the violent acts that Walzer would condone are never acceptable. According to Dennis Thompson, if an action is unreasonable, the leader's hands are also in the muck since in a democracy the people should hold the leader accountable.



The dilemma of many hands occurs when it is difficult to determine who is really in charge of the results in large organisations. Political ethics allows leaders to act in ways that would be improper in their personal lives while also requiring them to uphold greater standards than would be expected in their personal lives.

For instance, they can be less entitled to privacy than regular citizens and forbidden from using their position for personal gain. The key difficulties in this situation eventually revolve around the idea of conflict of interest.

Political morality and personal or private morality are frequently seen as having a conflict of interest, as was previously mentioned. But, it's crucial to understand that these two moral conceptions are capable of continuing their mutually beneficial interaction. These ideals permeate both the personal and public spheres of morality, regardless of whether a person is active in politics as a leader or as a citizen.

A person who acquired the required abilities in the political sphere may use these learned skills in a context outside of politics, which is frequently seen as a private everyday situation. On the other hand, a person entering politics may already possess the traits and values anticipated in a professional setting. As a result, as expected, the previously held values will be applied to the new political environment. If the traits were not already learnt, reciprocity, as in the context of acquiring such traits, is frequently present when entering the field. Although the expectations for both morality categories differ, there is at least some correlation between them.