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Hindi as a Language - Overview & Scope :

The Indo-Aryan language of Hindi ( Devanagari script Hindi ), or more properly Modern Standard Hindi ( Devanagari: [c], in Hindi ) , is primarily spoken in the Hindi Belt region, which includes sections of northern, central, eastern, and western India. Hindustani, which is mostly based on the Khariboli dialect of Delhi and the surrounding regions of North India, has been described as a standardised and Sanskritized register.


One of the two official languages of the Government of India, together with English, is Hindi, which is written in the Devanagari script. In addition to being an additional official language in three states, it is the official language in nine states and three union territories. One of the 22 official languages of the Republic of India is Hindi.

In the Hindi Belt, Hindi is the primary language spoken. In other areas of India, it is also spoken, albeit to a lesser level usually in a simplified or pidginised variety such as Bazaar Hindustani or Haflong Hindi. The term "Hindi" is legally recognised in a number of other countries outside of India, but these languages do not correspond to the Standard Hindi language we have just defined; rather, they are descended from dialects like Awadhi and Bhojpuri.


They include Caribbean Hindustani, which is spoken in Guyana, Suriname, and Trinidad & Tobago, as well as Fiji Hindi, which is recognised as an official language in Fiji. Standard Urdu, another recognised register of Hindustani, is mutually intelligible with standard Hindi since both languages share a shared conversational base and are mutually intelligible apart from the script and formal vocabulary.

Around the world, Hindi is spoken more frequently than Mandarin, Spanish, and English combined. It ranks behind Mandarin and English as the third most spoken language in the world when combined with mutually understandable Urdu. Hindi is the third most spoken language in the world, including first and second language speakers, according to Ethnologue ( 2022, 25th edition ) statistics.

Formerly, the Indo-Gangetic Plain's inhabitants were referred to as "Hindus." It was taken from the classical Persian word hind, which means "of or belonging to Hind ( India )" ( Iranian Persian : hendi )  ( hence, "Indian" ). In the past, people frequently referred to themselves as Hindu or Hindav ( from Persian: "of or belonging to the Hindu/Indian people" ). Amir Khusrow, for instance, frequently utilised this moniker in his poems.

The words "Hindi" and "Hindu" have their origins in Old Persian, which took them from the Sanskrit name Sindhu, which denotes the river Indus. "Indus" (for the river) and "India" are the equivalent Greek names for the land of the river. Between Shauraseni Prakrit and 'Sauraseni Apabhrams'a ( from Sanskrit apabhrams'a "corrupt" ), which appeared in the 7th century CE, Hindi is a direct descendent of an early form of Vedic Sanskrit, just like other Indo-Aryan languages.

The Sanskrit and Prakrit roots of Old Hindi were enhanced with loanwords from Persian, giving rise to the current form of Hindustani during the reign of the Delhi Sultanate, which ruled over the majority of modern-day north India, eastern Pakistan, southern Nepal, and Bangladesh. The Hindustani vernacular, which continues to be spoken as the common language of the people of the northern Indian subcontinent and is represented in the Hindustani lexicon of Bollywood films and music, became a manifestation of Indian national unity during the Indian Independence movement.

Many dialects and languages of the Hindi Belt rose to prominence through literary standardisation before Hindi became standardised on the Delhi dialect, including Avadhi and Braj Bhasha. The 12th and 13th centuries CE saw the development of the first Hindi literature. These early epics were included in this body of work, including translations of the Dhola Maru into Marwari, the Prithviraj Raso into Braj Bhasha, and the writings of Amir Khusrow into the Delhi dialect. 

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The Delhi dialect, the local vernacular of Delhi and the surrounding area, served as the foundation for modern Standard Hindi and eventually replaced prior prestige dialects like Awadhi and Braj. In the latter half of the Mughal era ( 1800s ), Urdu, which is thought of as another variety of Hindustani, gained linguistic status and suffered strong Persian influence. By the end of the 18th century, modern Hindi and its literary history began to develop. John Gilchrist is most known for his research on the Hindustani language, which the British colonists and indigenous people used to communicate throughout northern India including what is now Pakistan.

An English-Hindustani Dictionary, A Grammar of the Hindustanee Language, The Oriental Linguist, and many other works were assembled and written by him. He published his Perso-Arabic, Ngar, and Roman transliterated versions of his Hindustani dictionary. ​He was also instrumental in establishing University College London and the Gilchrist Educational Trust, both of which are well-known accomplishments. Around the end of the 19th century, a movement emerged to continue Hindi's development as a standardised variant of Hindustani distinct from Urdu.

The first Indian state to embrace Hindi was Bihar, which replaced Urdu as its sole official language in 1881. Nonetheless, Urdu was made a second official language in the state in 2014.

The Indian government established the following customs after gaining independence : The Government of India established a committee in 1954 to create a grammar of Hindi; the committee's report was published as A Basic Grammar of Modern Hindi in 1958. The Central Hindi Directorate of the Ministry of Education and Culture is standardising the orthography using the Devanagari script in order to create written consistency, improve the shape of some Devanagari symbols, and include diacritics to represent sounds from other languages.

The official language of the Republic of India was changed from Urdu, which had previously been used in British India, to Hindi written in the Devanagari script on September 14, 1949, by the Indian Constituent Assembly. To achieve this, a number of influential figures, most notably Beohar Rajendra Simha, Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, Kaka Kalelkar, Maithili Sharan Gupt, and Seth Govind Das who even participated in a discussion in Parliament, organised and fought for Hindi across the country. As a result, the initiatives were successful after Hindi was made the national language on Beohar Rajendra Simha's 50th birthday, on September 14, 1949. Today, Hindi Day is observed.

The official language of the Indian Commonwealth is covered in Part XVII of the Indian Constitution. English and Hindi in Devanagari script are among the official languages of the Union that have been prescribed by Article 343 : (1) Hindi written in Devanagari script shall be the official language of the Union. Indian numerals in their international format must be utilised for all official purposes by the Union. (2) Regardless of what is stated in clause (1), the English language must continue to be used for all official purposes of the Union for a period of fifteen years following the beginning of this Constitution. 

With the caveat that the President may, by decree, authorise the use of Hindi in addition to English and the Devanagari numeral system in addition to the international system of Indian numerals for any official purposes of the Union throughout the aforementioned period. The Indian Constitution's Article 351 states : It is the responsibility of the Union to encourage the use of Hindi, to develop it so that it can serve as a medium of expression for all elements of the composite culture of India, to ensure its enrichment by assimilating without compromising its genius the forms, styles, and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other Indian languages listed in the Eighth Schedule, and by drawing, whenever necessary or desirable, for its vocabulary, primary sources from these languages.

According to the provisions of Articles 344(2) and 351, it was intended that by 1965, only Hindi would be used by the Union Government for official purposes, leaving state governments free to use any other language they choose. The Official Languages Act of 1963, which allowed for the continued use of English for all official purposes indefinitely, was passed as a result of widespread opposition to the imposition of Hindi on non-native speakers, especially in South India like those in Tamil Nadu. However, the constitutional requirement for the Union Government to promote the spread of Hindi was retained and has significantly influenced its policies.

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According to Article 344 (2b), the official language commission must be established every ten years to make recommendations for the union government about the progressive use of Hindi and the imposition of limits on the use of the English language. In reality, the official language commissions regularly work to advance Hindi while allowing English to be used in official capacities by the union government. Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Mizoram, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and Uttarakhand are among the Indian states where Hindi is the official language.


Together with Gujarati, Hindi is a recognised official language in Gujarat. In areas of West Bengal where more than 10% of the population speaks Hindi, it serves as a second official language. A "co-official language" may also be designated by each; in Uttar Pradesh, for example, this language is typically Urdu depending on the party formation in power. The following Union Territories also recognise Hindi as an official language: Delhi, the Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, and Daman and Diu.

Despite the fact that the constitution makes no mention of a national tongue, Hindi is largely accepted as India's official tongue. This frequently causes conflict and divisive debate. Hindi is not the national language of India, according to the Gujarat High Court, which ruled in 2010, because the constitution does not specifically name it as such. While denying Gangam Sudhir Kumar Reddy bail in a case involving the Narcotics, Drugs, and Psychotropic Substances ( NDPS ) Act in 2021, the Bombay High Court cited Hindi as the national language. Reddy, a native Telugu speaker, had objected to having his statutory rights read in Hindi.

The Bombay High Court's observation was contested by Reddy in a Special Leave Petition to the Supreme Court, who argued that the lower court had overlooked the fact that Hindi is not India's official language. Hindi is our national language, for your kind information," an employee of the Indian meal delivery service Zomato informed a Tamil Nadu app user in 2021. The employee was dismissed by Zomato as a result, and soon after, she was promptly reinstated. The Madhya Pradesh High Court's ruling that the Hindi version of an enactment shall take precedence if there is a discrepancy between it and its English counterpart was delayed by the Supreme Court in 2018.


The importance that was thus given to English over Hindi in the decision highlights English's societal superiority over Hindi. Outside Asia, the Awadhi language an Eastern Hindi dialect with influence from Bhojpuri, Bihari languages, Fijian and English is spoken in Fiji. It is an official language in Fiji as per the 1997 Constitution of Fiji, where it referred to it as "Hindustani", however in the 2013 Constitution of Fiji, it is simply called "Fiji Hindi" as the official language. It is spoken by 380,000 people in Fiji.

The Awadhi language, an Eastern Hindi dialect, is spoken in Fiji and has influences from Bhojpuri, Bihari languages, Fijian, and English. According to the 1997 Fijian Constitution, it was designated as an official language under the name "Hindustani," however in the 2013 Fijian Constitution, it is simply referred to as "Fiji Hindi" as the official language. In Fiji, 380,000 people speak it. According to the 2011 Nepal census, 77,569 people in Nepal speak Hindi as their first language, while 1,225,950 people speak it as a second. Paramananda Jha, an Indian-born supporter of Hindi, was chosen to serve as Nepal's vice president. In July 2008, he took his oath of office in Hindi.

Due to this, there were demonstrations in the streets for 5 days, student protesters burned his effigies, and 22 districts went on general strike. His oath was declared illegal by the Nepal Supreme Court in 2009, yet he was retained as vice-president notwithstanding this. Jha exclaimed in a "angry" tone, "I cannot be forced to take the oath now in Nepali. I would prefer to take it in English.

In South Africa, Hindi is a language that is protected. The Pan South African Language Board is mandated to promote and uphold respect for Hindi along with other languages by the South African Constitution. Rajend Mesthrie's doctoral dissertation from 1985 claims that despite Hindi and other Indian languages having been spoken in South Africa for the past 125 years, no academic research have been done on their use, development, or present decline.

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The Emirate of Abu Dhabi has decided to make Hindi the third official court language. [d] This status entitles the Indian employees in the UAE to submit grievances with the local labour courts in their native tongue. In addition to being an official language of India's government alongside English, Hindi is the primary language of northern India, which is home to the Hindi Belt.

For those who live in Haflong, Assam, and speak various native tongues, a pidgin known as Haflong Hindi has emerged as a lingua franca. In Arunachal Pradesh, where native speakers of more than 50 dialects are present, Hindi has developed into a common language. Many Pakistanis can easily understand Hindi because they speak Urdu, which is also a standard register of the Hindustani language and is extensively viewed in Pakistan. 

Due to the widespread popularity and impact of Bollywood movies, songs, and performers in the area, a sizable portion of the Afghan populace, particularly in Kabul, is also able to speak and understand Hindi-Urdu. A sizable portion of the Madheshis, who have roots in north India but have migrated to Nepal over many centuries, also speak Hindi. In addition, a sizable Indian diaspora that originates in or is native to India's "Hindi Belt" speaks Hindi. In nations like the United States of America, the United Kingdom, the United Arab Emirates, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname, South Africa, Fiji, and Mauritius, where it is natively spoken at home and among their own Hindustani-speaking communities, a sizeable portion of the North Indian diaspora resides.

In addition to India, there are 8 million Hindi speakers in Nepal, 863,077 in the US, 450,170 in Mauritius, 380,000 in Fiji, 250,292 in South Africa, 150,000 in Suriname, 100,000 in Uganda, 45,800 in the UK, 20,000 in New Zealand, 20,000 in Germany, 26,000 in Trinidad and Tobago, and 3,000 in Singapore. Hindi and Urdu are mutually comprehensible dialects of the same language from a linguistic perspective. A core lexicon of native Prakrit and Sanskrit-derived terms is shared by both Hindi and Urdu.


In contrast to Urdu, which is written in the Perso-Arabic script and employs more Arabic and Persian loanwords than Hindi, which is written in the Devanagari script, Hindi has a greater proportion of words that have Sanskrit roots. Linguists generally agree that the two registers are two standardised varieties of the same language, Hindustani or Hindi-Urdu, due to this and the fact that the two have an identical grammar. In India, Hindi is the official language that is spoken the most.

Being one of India's 22 official languages, Urdu also has official status in Uttar Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Delhi, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, and Bihar. It is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. The Devanagari script, an abugida, is used to write Hindi. Devanagari is written from left to right and has 11 vowels and 33 consonants. Devanagari, unlike Sanskrit, does not record the erasure of the schwa in spoken Standard Hindi, making it less phonetically accurate for Hindi.

The official method for translating Hindi into Latin used by the Indian government is called Hunterian transliteration. There are also other more systems, including IAST, ITRANS, and ISO 15919. Online, Romanized Hindi, often known as Hinglish, predominates. Palakodety et al. found that 52% of comments on YouTube were in Romanized Hindi, 46% were in English, and 1% were in Devanagari Hindi after analysing the comments.

Naturally, Shauraseni Prakrit provided a significant amount of Hindi's lexicon in the form of tadbhava terms. In Prakrit, this process typically entails compensatory lengthening of the vowels that come before consonant clusters. The majority of Modern Standard Hindi's vocabulary contains tatsam borrowings from Sanskrit, particularly in the academic and technical domains. Uddh Hindi, also known as pure Hindi, is the official standard of Hindi, from which most of the Persian, Arabic, and English vocabulary has been replaced with neologisms that combine tatsam terms.

It is regarded as a more respectable dialect than other, more informal varieties of Hindi. Often excessive use of tatsam terms causes issues for native speakers. These might feature Sanskrit consonant clusters that aren't found in native Hindi, which would make pronunciation challenging. Sanskritization is the practise of replacing apparently foreign terminology with new terms created utilising Sanskrit components. These neologisms are mostly calques of English words that have been incorporated into spoken Hindi. 

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Persian has a major influence on Hindi as well, having been standardised from spoken Hindustani. Persian was merely used as a conduit for Arabic because the first borrowings, which date back to the middle of the 12th century, were exclusive to Islam ( e.g. Muhammad, islam ). Persian eventually replaced Hindi as the major administrative language in the Hindi heartland during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire. In the 17th century, Persian borrowings peaked and pervaded all facets of life. Hindi adopted even grammatical structures, such as the izafat. Following the partition, the Indian government promoted a Sanskritization campaign that marginalised the Persian component of Hindi.

The four main genres or styles of Hindi literature are Bhakti ( devotional; Kabir, Raskhan ); Srngar ( beautiful; Keshav, Bihari ); Vigatha ( epic ); and adhunik ( modern ). The Bhakti movement's impact and the creation of lengthy, epic poems are two characteristics of mediaeval Hindi literature. It was mainly written in different dialects of Hindi, especially Avadhi and Braj Bhasha, however to some extent it was also written in Delhavi, which is the origin of Modern Standard Hindi. Hindustani rose to prominence during the British Raj. Devaki Nandan Khatri's Chandrakanta, which she wrote in 1888, is regarded as the first legitimate prose piece in contemporary Hindi.

Munshi Premchand, who is regarded as the most beloved personality in the world of Hindi fiction and the progressive movement, is the one who introduced realism in Hindi prose literature. Through the writings of Swami Dayananda Saraswati, Bhartendu Harishchandra, and others, literary, or Shityik, Hindi became more widely read. Hindustani has been increasingly popular among educated people thanks to the growth of newspapers and publications. According to Hindi literature, the Dvived Yug, or "Era of Dwivedi," spanned the years 1900 to 1918.

It bears the name of Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi, a notable contributor to the development of Modern Standard Hindi in poetry and to the expansion of Hindi poetry's permissible subject matter beyond the traditional realms of religion and passionate love. Hindi literature experienced a romantic resurgence in the twentieth century. This is referred to as Chayavad ( shadow - ism), and the literary luminaries associated with this school go by the name Chayavadi. The four main Chayavadi poets are Jaishankar Prasad, Suryakant Tripathi "Nirala," Mahadevi Varma, and Sumitranandan Pant.

The post-modernist phase of Hindi literature known as Uttar Adhunik is characterised by a rejection of early styles that imitated the West as well as the excessive decoration of the Chayavad movement, as well as a return to straightforward language and themes from nature. Hindi movies, music, and literature have all been made available online. Google noted in 2015 that consumption of Hindi material had increased by 94% year over year and that 21% of Indian consumers preferred Hindi-language content. Digital editions of many Hindi newspapers are also available.

Hindi literature, ( Hindi : romanized : hindi sahitya ) covers works written in the numerous dialects of Hindi, each of which has its own writing system. The earliest examples of Hindi literature can be found in poetry written in Apabhramsa languages including Awadhi, Magadhi, Ardhamagadhi, and Marwari. Three major literary genres make up Hindi literature: Gadya prose, Padya poetry, and Caump prose. Based on the date of composition, it can be broadly divided into five well - known forms or genres in terms of historical development.

The literature was written in a variety of dialects, including Marwari, Magahi, Bhojpuri, Chhattisgarhi, Braj, Bundeli, Awadhi, and Kannauji. Some authors consider Modern Standard Hindi, a register of Hindustani written in the Devanagari script, to be the sole source of modern Hindi literature, excluding Urdu literature published in the Hindustani language.

The Adi Kal literature dating from before the 15th century CE was created in the central Indian districts of Kannauj, Delhi, and Ajmer. The epic poem Prithviraj Raso, written by Chand Bardai ( 1149 – c. 1200 ), is regarded as one of the first pieces of Hindi literature. When Muhammad of Ghor invaded Delhi and Ajmer, Prithviraj Chauhan, the illustrious monarch of those two cities, had Chand Bardai as his court poet.

The last king of Kannauj, Jayachandra, preferred Sanskrit to regional tongues. His court poet was Harsha, the creator of Naishdhiya Charitra. The other notable authors during this time were Nalha, the royal poet of Ajmer, and Jagnayak, also known as Jagnik, the royal poet of Mahoba. 

Nevertheless, the majority of the literature from this time period was burned by the army of Muhammad of Ghor when Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated in the Second Battle of Tarain. The authenticity of the scant number of manuscripts and scriptures from this time period also raises questions. 


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There are also other poems from this era that are Siddha and Nathpanthi, but again, their authenticity is questioned. The Vajrayana was a later branch of Buddhism that included the Siddhas. According to some academics, the language used in Siddha poetry is Magadhi Prakrit rather than an older dialect of Hindi. Nathpanthis were Hatha yoga practitioners. There are also several poetic works from this time period by Jain and Rasau, the heroic poets. 

Dakkhini or Hindavi were used in South India's Deccan region. It thrived during the Delhi Sultanate and afterwards, the Hyderabadi Nizams. The script used was that of Persia. Nonetheless, Hindavi literature can be regarded as an early form of Hindi literature. Numerous Deccani authorities, like Sheikh Ashraf and Mulla Vajahi, referred to this dialect as "Hinduvi." Others, including Roustami, Nishati, and others, favoured the term Deccani. Hindi was the name Shah Buharnuddin Janam Bijapuri gave to it. Khwaja Bandanawaz Gesudaraz Muhammad Hasan was the first author in Deccani.

He produced three prose works : Risala Sehwara, Hidayatnama, and Mirazul Aashkini. Nishatul Ishq was written by Abdulla Hussaini, his grandson. Nizami was the first Deccani poet. Many saint-poets rose to fame in the latter half of this era and the early Bhakti Period, including Ramanand and Gorakhnath. Some of Vidyapati's Maithili compositions display the earliest incarnation of Hindi. The Bhakti movement's influence on mediaeval Hindi literature can be seen in the creation of lengthy, epic poems.

The dialects in which literature was developed were Awadhi and Braj Bhasha. The two important works in Avadhi are Ramacharitamanas by Tulsidas and Padmavat by Malik Muhammad Jayasi. The two most notable works written in the Braj dialect are Surdas' Sur Sagar and Tulsidas' Vinaya Patrika. Another widely used language was sadhukaddi, especially when it came to Kabir's dohas and poetry.


In terms of poetry forms, the Bhakti period saw significant theoretical advancement, largely based on a synthesis of more traditional forms. They comprised rhyme schemes such as the Doha ( two - liners ), Sortha, Chaupaya, or four-liner, among The Nirguna school, which believed in a formless God or an abstract name, and the Saguna school, which believed in a God with qualities and worshipped Vishnu's incarnations, were the two schools of Bhakti poetry. The Nirguna school, which includes Kabir and Guru Nanak, was significantly influenced by Adi Sankaracharya's Advaita Vedanta theory.


They held to the idea of Nirgun Nirakaar Brahma, also known as the Formless One. The Saguna school, which was primarily represented by Vaishnava poets such as Surdas, Tulsidas, and others, was a logical development of the Dvaita and Vishishta Advaita Philosophy advanced by people like Madhavacharya and others.others. Moreover, poetry was classified at this time according to the numerous Rasas. The Adi Kaal, also known as the Vir Gatha Kaal, was distinguished by an excess of poetry in the Vir Rasa or heroic poetry, but the Bhakti Yug saw a far more varied and vibrant type of poetry that covered the full spectrum of rasas from Shringara rasa ( love ), Vir Rasa, and more ( Heroism ).

As seen by the main compositions glorifying Rama and Krishna like Sur Saravali, Ramacharitamanas, and Sur Sagar, this school was predominately Vaishnava in orientation. With the emergence of numerous Muslim Bhakti poets like Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana, a minister to the Mughal emperor Akbar and a great devotee of Krishna, this was also the era of tremendous integration between the Hindu and Islamic elements in the arts. Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana was also a great devotee of Krishna.

The Nirgun School of Bhakti Poetry was also incredibly secular in nature, and its proponents Kabir and Guru Nanak attracted a sizable following from all castes and religions. The erotic theme proliferated in Hindi literature during the Ritikavya or Ritismagra Kavya era. Riti, which means "process," is the name of this period because it was a time when poetry figures and theory were fully formed. The Bhakti movement's core characteristic — the emotional components of poetry — was substantially diminished by this emphasis on poetry theory, and the poetry's actual content lost significance.


Somewhere between the Bhakti and the Reeti Eras, the Saguna School of the Bhakti Yug separated into the two schools of Rama and Krishna devotion. Ain e Akbari ki Bhasha Vachanika by Heera Lal and Treatise on Kabir by Rewa Maharaja were the first Hindi works written in the Devanagari script or Ngar script. Each book was published in 1795. Sanskrit Hitopadesha was translated into Hindi by Munshi Lallu Lal and printed in 1809. In 1886, Lala Srinivas Das wrote the Hindi novel Pariksha Guru in the Ngar script. Bhagyawati, a Hindi novel by Shardha Ram Phillauri, was first published in 1888.

Devaki Nandan Khatri's Chandrakanta, which she wrote in 1888, is regarded as the first legitimate prose piece in contemporary Hindi. Munshi Premchand, who is regarded as the most beloved personality in the world of Hindi fiction and the progressive movement, is credited for introducing realism to Hindi prose literature.

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The British East India Company founded Calcutta's Fort William College in 1800. J. B. Gilchrist, the college's president, hired lecturers to create works in Hindustani. Lallu Lal's Prem Sagar, Sadal Mishra's Naasiketopaakhyan, Sadasukhlal of Delhi's Sukhsagar, and Munshi Inshallah Khan's Rani Ketaki ki Kahani are a few of these books. Premchand, who is regarded as the most beloved personality in the world of Hindi fiction and the progressive movement, is the one who introduced realism in Hindi prose literature. Prior to Premchand, religious themes, entertaining narratives, and fairy or fantastical tales dominated Hindi writing.


Numerous different languages have been used to translate Premchand's books. In Hindi literature, the Dwivedi Yug, often known as the "Era of Dwivedi," spanned the years 1900 to 1918. It bears the name of Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi, who made significant contributions to the development of modern Hindi poetry and expanded the permissible range of topics for Hindi poetry beyond the conventional ones of passionate love and religion. He supported Hindi poetry that emphasised social change and nationalism.

In 1903, Dwivedi was appointed editor of Saraswati, the country's first monthly publication in Hindi, which had been published since 1900. He utilised it as a platform to advocate for changes to Hindi literature. The poem Bharat-bharati by Maithili Sharan Gupt, which recalls India's former splendour, was one of the most well-known of the time. Bharatgit by Shridhar Prathak is another well-known poetry from the era. 


Many works of poetry from this time period have been referred to as "versified propaganda" by certain academics. Lucy Rosenstein asserts: "It is a public message in poem that uses useful but unattractive language. It is puritanical poetry that is deeply concerned with moral principles and social issues, with artistic considerations taking a back seat. There is a lack of creativity, originality, poetic sensibility, and expression; the metre is constrictive; and the idiom is awkward."


But, she continues, the time was crucial for building the groundwork for contemporary Hindi poetry, and it did demonstrate attention to social realities of the day. While she discusses Contemporary Hindi poetry, she also notes that the lack of beauty is a common trait of "young" poetry. In the absence of a poetic tradition in contemporary Hindi, poets frequently modelled their forms after Braj, and later on Sanskrit, Urdu, Bengali, and English forms, which were frequently inappropriate for Hindi. The poetry' themes tended to be collective rather than individual. Characters were frequently depicted as social types rather than as unique people.

Hindi literature experienced a romantic resurgence in the twentieth century. The literary characters associated with this school are known as Chhayavaadi, which is also known as Chhayavaad or shadowism. The four main Chhayavaadi poets are Jaishankar Prasad, Suryakant Tripathi "Nirala," Mahadevi Varma, and Sumitranandan Pant. Ramdhari Singh, often known as "Dinkar," was a renowned poet who used some Chayavaadi elements in his works despite also writing in other genres.

Hindi poetry was in its adolescence during this Neo - romantic era. It is distinguished by exquisite expression and an outpouring of strong emotion. The four leading poets of this time period stand for the best Hindi poetry. A distinctive aspect of this time period is the poets' emotional and occasionally active involvement in the struggle for national independence, their attempts to comprehend and absorb the vast spirit of a magnificent ancient culture, and their towering genius, which utterly eclipsed all of the literary "talk abouts" of the following seven decades.

Following Pragativad ( Progressivism ) by Gajanan Madhav Muktibodh and other writers is Prayogvad ( Experimentalism ) of Ajneya and the Tar Saptak poets, also known as Nayi Kavita ( New Poetry ) and Nayi Kahani ( New Narrative ) of Nirmal Verma and others. The name of one of the many schools of poetry that emerged in the 1950s was Nakenwad, which took its name from the first letters of its three founders, poets of distinction Nalin Vilochan Sharma, Kesari Kumar, and Naresh Mehta. Nalin Vilochan and Kesari Kumar weren't just great poets, they were also outstanding critics with a broad understanding of literary history.

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Their critical approach is characterised by a synthesis or coordination of numerous fields of human knowledge, including philosophy, history, art, and culture, which are all used to evaluate and analyse literary works. Poetry and Shayari have a long history in Hindi. Shringar, Karun, Veer, Hsya, and other genres of Kavita based on Ras, Chhand, and Alankar are only a few examples. Humorous comedy poetry in Hindi is known as Hasya Kavita. Hindi kavi sammelans are a big reason why it is so well-known. Children's rhymes in Hindi are called bal kavita.

Hindi poetry has been extensively documented. Kavitakosh and Kavita are two of the largest online collections of Hindi poetry. Hindi Kavita is the most elegant content that has attracted new audiences who weren't looking for Hindi content or poetry. Manish Gupta established this movement in 2014, and it has since created a brand-new market and highlighted a number of projects.

Award-winning poets, academics, journalists, and actors, actresses, and others have stepped forward to support and further the cause. The sound track of Indian movies has benefited greatly from Hindi Kavita's contributions as well. Many well-known musical masterpieces have been heard. 

In Hindi, satirical rhetoric is referred to as Vyangya. Writings of Vyangya have the humour and soul of sarcasm. Some of the more well-known authors in this field are Harishankar Parsai ( Hindi : ) ( 22 August 1924 - 1995 ). He was a well-known satire and humorist in contemporary Hindi literature, and he is renowned for his straightforward writing.

The renowned Indian authors Rahul Sankrityayan, Bhadant Anand Kausalyayan, Sachchidananda Hirananda Vatsyayan "Ajneya," and Baba Nagarjun all devoted their lives to the Hindi Travel Literature or Yatra Vritanta. One of India's most widely travelled academics, Rahul Sankrityayan spent 45 years of his life travelling outside of his country of origin.

The "Father of Hindi Travel Literature," as he is referred to. Baba Nagarjun, popularly known as "Janakavi - the People's Poet," was a well-known Hindi and Maithili poet who also wrote a number of novels, short stories, literary biographies, and travelogues. In the late 19th century, Bhartendu Harishchandra established Hindi theatre and playwriting with his works Satya Harishchandra ( 1875 ), Bharat Durdasha ( 1876 ), and Andher Nagari ( 1878 ). Jaishankar Prasad then rose to prominence as the next major name in Hindi playwriting with works like Skanda Gupta (1928), Chandragupta ( 01931 ), and Dhruvswamini ( 1933 ). 

As the fight for independence gained momentum, playwrights addressed issues of nationalism and subversive ideas against the British, but to avoid censorship they adapted themes from mythology, history, and legend and used them as vehicles for political messages. This trend has persisted to the present, though it is now used to highlight social, personal, and psychological issues rather than issues that are obviously political; however, street theatre broke this trend in the decades that followed in the post-independence era. Like IPTA-inspired Naya Theatre of Habib Tanvir performed from the 1950s to the 1990s, Safdar Hashmi's Jana Natya Manch did from the 1970s to the 1980s.


Following independence, the newly formed nation presented playwrights with fresh topics to address and express, and Hindi playwriting displayed more succinctness and symbolism. But, it did not produce as much as Hindi fiction or poetry did. Nevertheless there are writers who have consistently improved their stagecraft, such as Jagdish Chandra Mathur ( Konark ) and Upendranath Ashk ( Anjo Didi ). Ashadh Ka Ek Din ( 1958 ), Adhe Adhure and Lehron Ke Rajhans, Dharamvir Bharati, who penned Andha Yug, and other playwrights like Surendra Verma and Bhisham Sahni were all followed by another generation of pioneers in Hindi playwriting.

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One author who gave their complete attention to the genre of essay writing is Kuber Nath Rai. His essay volumes Gandha Madan, Priya neel-kanti, Ras Aakhetak, Vishad Yog, Nishad Bansuri, and Parna mukut have significantly improved the essay form. He was proud of his Indian ancestry and an expert on both Indian culture and western literature. His appreciation of the natural world, his interest in Indian folklore, his preference for an agricultural society over one dominated by machines, as well as his romantic outlook, aesthetic sensibility, keen awareness of modern life, and classical style place him among the best contemporary essayists in Hindi.

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At the age of 17, Bharatendu Harishchandra launched his journalism career. He published Kavi Vachan Sudha, a periodical devoted to poetry from the ancient and mediaeval periods. In 1873, the general interest magazine Harishchandra Magazine was published. For ladies and young girls, Bala Bodhini has been published since 1874. 

KVS was regarded as being on par with the best English journals of the period and the best literary journal published at the time in any Indian language. Up till his passing in 1885, Bharatendu maintained the journal. He's regarded as the most productive Hindi journalist due to his amazing accomplishments.

Madan Mohan Malaviya was born in a Brahmin family in Allahabad in 1861. was the editor of Indian Thought from 1885 until 1887. He backed the Congress wholeheartedly. He was the newspaper's editor from 1887 to 1889 and was involved in its founding. Many renowned Hindi authors, including Gopalram Gehmari, Amrutlal Chakravarty, and Pandit Pratap Narayan Mishra, were close friends of his.

He founded the Urdu periodical "Kohinoor" from Lahore with Bal Mukund Gupta. Gupta wasn't a proficient Hindi scholar back then, but with Malviya's guidance, he was able to advance to editor of Bharat Mitra. Abhyudaya, a brand-new revolutionary periodical, was created in 1908 by Malviya in Prayag. Purushottam Das Tandon, a well-known author, frequently contributed to it.

Following Abhyudaya, Malviya created the monthly magazine "Maryada," a daily newspaper "Leader," and a third daily, "Bharat," both in 1909. Malviya was a devoted patriot, and his devotion to his nation was evident in every one of his writings. Together with the founding of the Hindustan Times and its Hindi counterpart, Hindustan, he also contributed to Aaj. One of the best authors in contemporary Hindi literature was Babu Gulabrai ( 17 January 1888 – 13 April 1963 ), also known by the pen name Gulabrai MA.

Durga Prasad Mishra, who was born in Kashmir, moved to Calcutta in 1878 and founded Bharat Mitra. He started another weekly publication in 1879 called Saar Sudhanidhi, but it was discontinued the same year. He began publishing a third weekly on August 17, 1880, called Ucchit Vakta, which means Proper or Best Time. Ucchit Vakta concentrated on speaking out against injustice and exposing the British Raj.

For several years, it was extremely well-liked. Mishra faced many obstacles when he attempted to publish a critical book during the British Raj. He occasionally served as the paper's editor, writer, and salesperson. He served as an example for a lot of journalists, most notably Bal Mukund Gupta. 

Dharamvir Bharati, who was born on December 25th, 1926, earned his BA with honours in 1945, his MA with distinction in Hindi literature in 1947, and eventually his Doctorate from Allahabad University. He served as the university's principal for a while. He started working as a journalist for Padmakant Malviya's publication Abhyudaya. He then became a member of Ilachand Joshi's Sangam and the editor of Dharmayug. This journal gained a lot of popularity because of Bharati.

Bharati provided updates from the front lines of combat throughout the war in 1971. He covered every tragedy of the conflict. His dispatches, considered to be the best in Hindi war journalism, were collected and published as "Yudh Yatra." Bharati was unmatched as a trustworthy and devoted reporter. He took on the editorship of Aalochana and Nikarshak after the conflict. Bharati was renowned for his work as a novelist, poet, essayist, and short story writer. His most well-known compositions include "Band Gali ka Aakhiri Makaan," "Andha Yug," and "Kunpriya."

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The Hindi languages, also known as the Central Indo-Aryan languages, are a collection of closely related dialects that are spoken in North and Central India. The Indo-Aryan language family, which is a subfamily of the Indo - European language family, is composed mostly of these linguistic variants. They represent a dialect continuum that originated with the Middle Prakrits historically.

The Dehlavi ( Delhi ) dialect of the Hindustani language, the lingua franca of Northern India, and the foundation of the Modern Standard Hindi and Modern Standard Urdu literary standards, are found in the Central Zone, which is part of the Hindi Belt. The coherence of the Indo-Aryan language family depends on the classification chosen; in this case, only Eastern and Western Hindi will be taken into account.

If there is a general agreement regarding the dialectology of Hindi, it is that it can be divided into two groups: Western Hindi and Eastern Hindi. Eastern Hindi developed from Ardhamagadhi Prakrit, whereas Western Hindi developed from the Apabhramsa variety of Shauraseni Prakrit.

For cultural considerations, various variations of Hindi, like Bihari, Rajasthani, and Pahari, are excluded from this analysis. About 500–1000 CE, languages from the Central Zone —or at least their ancestors — appear to have moved to the Middle East and Europe. Language of Central Asia's Central Zone is Parya. Sansi, Bagheli, Chamari ( a fictitious language ), Bhaya, Gowari ( not a different language ), and Ghera are added to Western Hindi Ethnologue.

The progenitor of modern Hindi and modern Urdu, Ancient Hindi was the earliest stage of the Delhi dialect ( Khariboli ) of the Hindustani language. It evolved from Shauraseni Prakrit and was spoken by the inhabitants of the Hindi Belt, particularly those who lived in and around Delhi, between the 13th and the 15th centuries. Only a small number of literary works have references to it, including several poems by the poet Amir Khusrau, lyrics by the poet-saint Namdev, and certain words in the Adi Granth by the Sufi saint Baba Farid.

As they make use of a dialect like Khariboli, the works of Kabir may also be incorporated. Originally written in Devanagari, Ancient Hindi was later also written in the Perso -Arabic alphabet. Although it is not usually regarded, some academics include Apabhramsa poetry from as early as 769 AD ( Dohakosh by Siddha Sarahapad ) as part of Old Hindi. With the addition of Persian loanwords to the Prakritic foundation of Old Hindi, the language grew into Hindustani, which later developed into the contemporary modern languages of Hindi and Urdu.

More reasons than ever exist thanks to globalisation to overcome "impenetrable" language boundaries and study new languages. Hindi is a fantastic, elegant, and widely spoken language that would be beneficial for you to learn if you're looking to learn a new language. Yet, if you're unprepared, studying Hindi can seem overwhelming. Hindi is still a fantastic language to learn for a variety of reasons.

No matter whatever language you select, learning a second language has many common challenges. The difficulties you'll encounter on your path to fluency are numerous, too. Learning to listen and comprehend the language properly. Learning how to pronounce new words and sounds. Acquiring vocabulary and grammar. Reading and writing instructions. Getting to know the language and culture. Observing the tempo and tone of newly learned speech. 

But each of these is crucial to learning a new language. And in order to become fluent, you must focus on each component as you study the language. Several languages are similar to one another and might not be as challenging to learn. A native Italian speaker would seek to study Spanish, for instance. Alternatively, if a Mandarin-speaking Chinese individual wants to learn Cantonese. The languages they are learning share common word origins, cultural traits, and writing systems.

As a result, their journey is lot simpler, quicker, and less culture-shocking. It is difficult for beginners because that is not the case for English speakers learning Hindi. We'll look at some of the challenges that arise when moving from a European language like English to ones like Hindi, Japanese, Arabic, or others. But the rewards and joy of studying Hindi much outweigh the difficulty. Also, you'll join the vast majority of people learning many languages worldwide.

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To put it briefly, learning Hindi can be really challenging. Hindi is more challenging to learn for a native English speaker than the majority of other languages. With similar-sounding words and minor variations, the enunciation is drastically different. More thought should be given to the speech's tempo and tone. Moreover, the placement of the grammar's subjects, predicates, verbs, and nouns differs greatly from English. 

The characters are alien and exotic looking when it comes to reading and writing. Yet, a native Spanish speaker learning English wouldn't experience this. Because of this, many linguists believe Hindi to be among the hardest languages in the world to master. But there are enormous rewards for hard work and perseverance. And the same goes for taking on the difficult task of mastering Hindi. The effort is worthwhile. 


If you need the inspiration to learn a new language, just as there are challenges to take into account when studying Hindi, there are also incredible benefits to take into account. This includes the fact that one of the biggest countries in the world is India, which has more than a billion Hindi speakers. As the language of one of the largest economies in the world, it is one of the most frequently spoken languages in the world. International business professionals, globetrotters, expats, fans of foreign film/music, and others are encouraged by this.

Many people of Indian ancestry who were raised in western cultures and had no exposure to Hindi yearn to learn the language in order to reconnect with their ancestors. The Bollywood movie business in the United States is second only to Hollywood in terms of film and music. And many people are motivated to study the language by this media alone. It's an incredible sensation to be able to follow a foreign movie in its native language without the use of subtitles or voice overs. The sound of Indian music is very lovely. Also, the language itself is graceful and lovely.

In addition to being numerous and speaking Hindi in India, Indians and Hindi speakers are now found all over the world thanks to globalisation. In the past, British colonialism of India contributed to bridging the East and West and fostering cross-cultural understanding. As a result, both Europeans and Indians have found it simpler to adapt to and blend into one another's cultures. As a result, there are a lot of Indians in the UK, the US, Canada, and other countries around the globe. And because of this, conversing with and practising your Hindi with native speakers is especially simple.

In America and Europe, there are Hindu temples, Indian restaurants, hotels, taxi drivers, and social groups. This increases the motivation of English speakers to learn Hindi. Several English words have been ingrained in the vernacular of India's average middle-class people who also speak English. This makes travelling to India for cultural/spiritual enlightenment and immersion even simpler and more advantageous for your Hindi learning process.

There are many resources available to help you learn Hindi, making the process simpler than in the past. Even though learning Hindi is said to be challenging, it is achievable and, with the right tools and commitment, is likely for you. The days of learning Hindi in a conventional classroom setting or with a private teacher are long gone. With the tools at your disposal in this technological age, you can educate yourself.

Free language-learning apps are available for download on mobile devices. You can make a lot of progress towards fluency utilising these applications, depending on the app you select. There are computer programmes with various learning platforms as well as audio systems that concentrate on speaking and understanding Hindi.


Traveling is more affordable and convenient than ever when it comes to immersion. And one of the best ways to learn is to be around native speakers. You can also purchase college - level Hindi language textbooks online, depending on your needs, and for many prospective students, diligent self-study is a realistic option. An invaluable technique for honing and perfecting the skills already learnt is language interaction with native speakers and other students online.

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Being bilingual is something to be proud of. Not to be taken lightly, it is a serious matter. But if you're willing to put in the effort, it's worthwhile. Learning Hindi has a lot of benefits. Several opportunities for personal and professional growth arise from being able to communicate with people who speak it as their first and second language. India is also a sizable and stunning nation. Traveling there to put your abilities to the test can be a wonderful journey. 


Learning Hindi is between moderately and extremely hard. It's attainable and worthwhile, which is the silver lining. Also, there are a tonne of tools available for study, practise, and learning, which makes learning a foreign language simpler than ever. Purchase some books, download some apps, and access entertainment in Hindi. You can become fluent in Hindi with the correct materials, perseverance, persistence, and hard effort.

Not only is Hindi a very intriguing language with a long history. It's crucial as well. One of the most commonly used languages worldwide. And maybe most significantly, it unites India as a whole. Hindi and Urdu are both together referred to as Hindustani. The question of whether these two languages are similar or dissimilar is one that is hotly contested. Well, their shared history divides and unites them at the same time. 


Formerly, Hindi and Urdu were one language. For hundreds of years, the Northern Indian region's primary language was Hindustani. But they write in distinct scripts, and some of their terminology is also different. They are still mostly mutually comprehensible, though. Hindi is quite commonly spoken, as I've already indicated. 120 million people speak Hindi as a second language, while there are 425 million native Hindi speakers worldwide.

evertheless, this number fluctuates depending on whether you include speakers of Urdu as a first or second language. Nonetheless, globally, Hindi is the third most extensively used language. India, Nepal, and Fiji all have Hindi as an official language. There are significant Hindi-speaking populations in both South Africa and Mauritania, as well as in the United States.

Hindi and English are the two official languages of India as a whole. The 22 states of the nation, however, are free to select their own official languages. India has a total of 23 official languages. These, however, are solely the official languages. Language variations, regional dialects, and minority languages are not included here. Furthermore, it is quite difficult to locate specific figures because different sources give varying figures.

There are 448 different languages in India, according to Ethnologue.


In the meantime, 780 were found by the People's Linguistic Survey of India. In addition, according to the 2018 census, locals can cite 19569 different languages as their mother tongue. That is, of course, only the case because different communities may refer to the same language differently than another, despite the fact that they all speak the same language.

The argument is that India has many different languages. The words for commonplace items also vary depending on accents, dialects, and different areas, towns, and cities. But Hindi ties them all together. And for for this reason, learning Hindi is crucial. Hindustani is a language that has its roots in the region near the Indus River, as is evident from its name. Now, this is a part of Northern India and Pakistan. As we've already stated, the Sauraseni Prakrit branch gave rise to the Indo-Aryan language of Hindi.

From the 7th and the 13th centuries CE, the Hindi or Hindustani language began to advance. Due to Turkic and Arabic invasions, the area during this time had a significant Islamic and Arabic impact. The Delhi Sultanate helped the Islamic faith spread even further over the peninsula in the 13th century. The Turkic and Afghan Dynasties dominated the Muslim nation of the Delhi Sultanate. The official tongue under its rule was Persian.


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But the majority of people in and around Delhi spoke Hindi. The Hindustani language was undoubtedly altered by this Persian influence. The Delhi Sultanate was succeeded by the Mughals, a more Persianized kingdom ( 1605 - 1707 ). In essence, Persian served as the official language of the Sub-Indian continent from the 13th to the early 18th centuries. In actuality, it served as both the literary language and the lingua franca.

Yet commoners continued to speak Hindustani. Hindustani also became the language of the aristocracy by the time of the Mughal Empire. In addition, Hindustani was made an official language of India alongside English during the British era, and it remains so today. Due to the fact that Arabic is the language of Islamic liturgy, it had a significant influence in addition to Persian.

Yet, due to the fact that not all areas and groups were Muslim, Arabic's use and influence varied. Thus, Nastaliq script was adopted by Muslim populations. And Nastaliq is still used to write Urdu today. Nonetheless, Hindu populations still make use of the Devanagari alphabet, which originated from Sanskrit, Hindustani's predecessor. The first difference between Hindi and Urdu is this.


Technically speaking, the languages remained the same. Urdu was once described as a Hindustani dialect with a large Persian vocabulary. The Mughal Empire's army spoke only Urdu, which is also how the language got its name. When the British Raj made Hindustani written in the Nastaliq script the official language, the two forms of the language truly split apart. This decision infuriated Hindustani speakers who still employed the traditional Devanagari script.


On which writing system should be the official one for the Hindustani language, a significant disagreement erupted. The answer was to split it into Devanagari and Nastaliq using Hindi and Urdu, respectively. And so Hindi and Urdu were created from the one Hindustani tongue. The lexicon altered as the gap between the two dialects of Hindustani widened on a political and cultural level. Hindi speakers rid the language of earlier Persian influences in an effort to distinguish it from Urdu. They replaced them with new Sanskrit words. 


Urdu performed the reverse. Persian or Arabic terms took the place of Sanskrit words. Although neither language underwent a significant reform as a result of this transition, both were undoubtedly altered. Although spoken Hindi and Urdu are still mutually understandable today, these unique lexical differences undoubtedly distinguish them from one another. Also, Hindi and Urdu speakers will understand you properly if you speak either language simply, that is, without employing complex literary terms.

The Hindi writing system is an intriguing one. Devanagari is the writing system used for Hindi. There are 11 vowels and 36 consonants in this writing system. English native speakers will be relieved to learn that all 47 of the sounds represented by these letters are present in the English language, despite the fact that learning 47 new letters initially appears intimidating.

Like English, Devanagari is written from left to right. Its writing system is an alphasyllabary (abugida), which is a segmented unit depending on the consonant. Vowels and consonants have different values. In the Hindi writing system, consonants therefore have an inherent vowel that can alter based on diacritics. 

The Hindi alphabet has 36 consonants in total. The Devanagari writing system can distinguish between minute variations in letter sounds. Also, this script's letter order is not arbitrary. It is based on the exact Devanagari ordering principles, which depend on where and how you pronounce the sounds. Vowels enter Hindi through two separate channels. They can either be identified individually or by the use of diacritical marks with consonants. The order of the vowels in Hindi is determined by how they are pronounced, just like the consonants.

Although learning a new writing system may initially appear difficult, Devanagari has a feature that makes reading Hindi quite straightforward. Hindi is written totally phonetically. You pronounce it exactly way you see it written down. Like in the English word "thorough," there are no hidden consonants in this language. Similar to other languages, Hindi places a high value on following grammatical norms. Let's examine Hindi's grammar in detail to discover what distinguishes it from other languages.

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Grammatical cases highlight the function a noun serves in a sentence. There are three separate cases in the Hindi language, viz., vocative case, oblique case, and direct case. Indeed, there are masculine and feminine genders in the Hindi language. While gender is not a notion in English, it is present in the majority of Indo - European languages. In Hindi, each thing is either male or feminine. For instance, a room is masculine and a bus is feminine.

Yet, gender has an impact on more than just nouns in Hindi language. When conjugating verbs in Hindi, you must consider the gender. The verb must alter depending on your own gender and the gender of the listener. A verb is considered feminine if its final letter is ( ii ), and masculine if it is ( aa ). In actuality, the rule is considerably simpler than it initially appears. The Hindi word for "eat" is ( kha ). You would say ( khataa ) if you were a man, and if you were a woman ( khatii ). 

Hindi adjectives use can occasionally be influenced by gender.Nnevertheless, depends on the speaker's gender rather than the word it is linked to. 
You must add (aa) for the masculine and (ii) for the feminine, just like with Hindi verbs. Yet not all adjectives result in this. By using "the," "a," or "an" in front of a noun in English, we indicate its certainty. However this grammatical structure is absent from Hindi. It's interesting to note that Hindi doesn't use the pronouns "he" or "she." Hindi uses pronouns that are gender-neutral. However depending on your gender and the gender of the person you're speaking to, the verb does alter.

When you say "you," Hindi pronouns reveal yet another unique feature. The Hindi word for "you" has three possible pronunciations, viz., ( tuu ) : very casual, the way you refer to your closest pals. ( tum ) : casual, yet you'd refer to people in this sense more as work friends, siblings, or spouses. ( aap ) : formal, like you'd speak to your boss, parents, strangers, or seniors Or can also be used to refer to multiple groups of people. Hindi is an SOV ( subject - object - verb ) language, in contrast to English. This implies that the verb is always the last word in simple phrases.

The subject of this phrase is the first person singular pronoun "I" which is written as ( main ). The word "teacher" ( shikshak ) is followed by the verb "am" ( hoon ). Hindi sounds like a difficult language to learn with this many grammar rules, a new writing system, and a vocabulary that is entirely strange. But is it really the case? It can be simpler than you think to learn Hindi. Hindi falls within category 4 according to the US Foreign Service Institute (FSI). For natural English speakers, this means that learning it is more difficult than learning French or German.


Yet learning Hindi is also more simpler than learning Mandarin or Japanese. About 1100 study hours to become fluent in Hindi, according to FSI.

In the end, there is no language that is difficult to learn. only poor approaches to language learning. Learning Hindi won't be difficult if you have the correct language - learning programme that allows you to have fun while continually advancing you. Hindi is among the top three most spoken languages in the world, thus learning it is unquestionably worthwhile.


It is imperative to study Hindi if you have any intention of residing in India. Yet it's still beneficial to acquire some basic Hindi words, even if you only plan to travel to India occasionally. Becoming familiar with the most used Hindi words and phrases would make navigating easier. Locals that are appreciative can provide you with superior customer service. Also, this understanding enables you to explore this lovely nation unlike any other tourist could. So, studying Hindi is undoubtedly worthwhile.

Hindi language speakers may find it advantageous to do business and communicate with more than a billion people worldwide because Hindi represents the rich culture and tradition of India. Here is a step-by-step instruction manual for learning Hindi writing and reading in Devanagari.

Recognizing and learning the Hindi alphabets is the first stage. The most effective method for learning Hindi letters is to memorise the 'abugida,' which has 12 vowels and 36 consonants. Consonants have built-in vowels that can be altered with various vowel markers.

The simplest technique to learn Hindi consonants and vowels is to divide the alphabet's 48 letters into 5 daily lessons. Learning any language takes time and patience. This is also regarded as the most effective method for learning Hindi letters. The simple method for learning Hindi writing is described in the steps that follow.

1. Spend at least an hour or two every day working on your vowel and consonant writing.

2. Get familiar with Hindi language and expressions by viewing tutorial videos.

3. Invest in a Hindi dictionary that offers complete word definitions.

4. Enroll in one of the many online language programmes that also provide practical tips on how to learn Hindi and write it rapidly.

These four stages make learning Hindi writing very simple.

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After being familiar with Hindi characters and letters, reading Hindi becomes simple. Yet, Hindi is one of the few languages that has gender-specific words that may sound different when read and written. An simple technique to learn Hindi consonants was already discussed above.

For example, words that finish in the vowel aa tend to be more masculine, such as larkaa ( boy ), whereas terms that end in the vowel ee tend to be more feminine, such as larkee ( girl ).

The simple method for learning Hindi reading is described in the steps that follow. 

1. Get some practise by listening to the various audio lessons that websites and apps offer. 

2. Get to know Hindi pronouns such as main - I for the first person singular and hum - we for the first person plural. 

3. Learn Hindi verbs like seekhna, which means to learn, and parhna, which means to read. 

4. To become familiar with Hindi grammar, try to speak it as much as you can in public.

Learning about fundamental concepts, such as the days of the week written in Hindi and Devanagari, is one of the best and simplest ways to learn Hindi writing and reading at the same time. Sunday is referred to as Raveevaar, Monday is referred to as Somvaar, Tuesday is referred to as Mangalvaar, Wednesday is referred to as Budhvaar, Thursday is referred to as Guroovaar, Friday is referred to as Shukaravaar, Saturday is referred to as Shaneevaar, etc.. Yesterday, sometimes called bita kal. Today is known as aaj. Tomorrow is also referred to as kal. Day is called din. Night is called raat. 

The above phases summarised how to learn Hindi and write it using the Devanagari alphabet, ideas on how to learn Hindi fast, and how to learn Hindi quickly, but the most effective method for learning the language is to practise it with a partner. The most effective technique to improve your Hindi alphabet knowledge and understand fundamental Hindi grammar is through conversation. It is a wonderful experience to learn it in a group of people who have a similar interest, such as learning Hindi or who want to know how to learn basic Hindi to write and read fluently.

Hello or Hi, called as Namaste! 

Good morning ! referred to as Shubh Prabhaat ! 

Good Evening ! referred to as Shubh sundhyaa! 
Welcome ! is referred to as Apka Swaagat Hai.
What's up ? आप कैसे हैं ? referred to as Aap kaisey hain?
I'm good, thank you. also called Mein theek hoon, shukriya!
I'm grateful. शुक्रीया ( धन्यवाद ) called Shukriyaa ( dhanyavaad )

The first thing to remember is that learning a language and memorising its words takes time. It is difficult to learn a language since it has a rich history and deeper meaning throughout its whole formation. Never be scared to try learning a new language, but always remember that progress will be made more quickly if you get started as soon as possible. The same zeal and motivation are needed to learn Hindi. By employing these methods, one can enhance their ability and increase their understanding of Hindi.

1. Enroll in free online courses, including those offered by North Carolina State University and The University of Pennsylvania. The former gives video lessons with grammar, tests, and exercises, while the latter teaches the fundamentals of Hindi grammar. 

2. Invest in an excellent audio and visual textbook that can help you understand the in-depth concepts of grammar and other language components and may help you build your vocabulary.

3. Read existing books around Elementary Hindi by famous writers or the Hindi course books for academics. Get further book recommendations from other Hindi - lovers by asking them.

4. Study daily Hindi newspapers, blogs, and Hindi authors, writers, and philosophers.

5. To acquire regular information about the latest trends and hot cultural issues, check out social media sites like Facebook, Linkedin, etc.

6. Watch Hindi-subtitled films and television shows to learn more about the language.

7. To learn more about Indian culture and values, go to cultural events and make new acquaintances.

8. Download linguistic and cultural research tools that could be useful in learning more about the locals' way of life.

9. Engage in conversation with native Indian speakers to gain greater language knowledge.

10. Go to India as a visitor and learn about some truly amazing locations.

Since India is one of the few nations that excels in practically every field of business and life, thousands of people throughout the world are eager to learn Hindi and improve their ability to speak the language. 

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Hindi English Translation Studies :

Translation is the process of conveying the meaning of a text written in the source language through a text written in the target language. The Hindi language makes a terminological distinction between translating a written text and interpreting oral or signed communication between speakers of different languages that is not made by other languages; under this distinction, translation can only start after writing first appears within a language community. 

There is always a chance that a translator will unintentionally convey source-language vocabulary, grammar, or syntax into the target-language rendering. On the other hand, these "spill-overs" have occasionally brought in beneficial calques and loanwords from the parent language that have improved recipient languages. The languages they have translated into have been shaped by translators, particularly the early translators of sacred writings. 

Since the 1940s, efforts have been made, with varied degrees of success, to automate translation or to automatically assist the human translator due to the tedious nature of the translation process. A global market for translation services has recently been cultivated by the development of the Internet, which has also allowed "language localization." The Latin term translatio, which stems from trans, "across," and ferre, "to carry" or "to bring," is where the English word "translation" comes from ( -latio in turn coming from latus, the past participle of ferre ).

Translatio is the Latin word for "carrying across" or "bringing across," and it refers to the act of moving a text from one language to another. Other than Dutch and Afrikaans, other Slavic and Germanic languages have based their words for the idea of "translation" on the Roman word translatio, using their particular Slavic or Germanic root words in place of the Latin origins. Instead, the remaining Slavic languages borrowed their terms for "translation" from a different Roman term, traductio, which was itself derived from traduco ( "to lead across" or "to bring across" ), which is formed from trans ( "across" ) + duco ( "to lead" or "to bring" ).

Russian and the South Slavic languages adopted the traductio pattern, while the West and East Slavic languages with the exception of Russia adopted the translatio pattern. Because of their direct Latin ancestry, the Romance languages did not need to coin their own words to serve as "translators"; instead, they merely modified the second of the two Latin words, traductio. The English word "metaphrase" ( a "literal" or "word-for-word" translation ) comes from the Ancient Greek word for "translation" ( metaphrasis, "a speaking across" ), in contrast to "paraphrase" ( "a talking in other words," from, paraphrasis ). In one of the more recent terminologies, "paraphrase" and "metaphrase" are equivalent to "dynamic equivalence" and "formal equivalence," respectively.

Because a given word in a given language frequently has more than one meaning and because a given meaning may frequently be expressed by more than one word in a given language, the idea of metaphrase, or "word for word translation," is technically flawed. Yet, "metaphrase" and "paraphrase" may be valuable as ideal terms that delineate the two ends of the range of potential translation strategies.

Debates of translation theory and practise have a long history and exhibit remarkable continuity. The Greeks of antiquity distinguished between paraphrase and metaphrase or literal translation. John Dryden, an English poet and translator ( 1631 – 1700 ), accepted this distinction and defined translation as the skillful blending of these two phrasing styles when choosing "counterparts" or equivalents for the terms employed in the original language.

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Because Cicero and Horace famously and figuratively warned against translating "word for word" in first-century BCE Rome, this basic articulation of the fundamental concept of translation — equivalence — is as adequate as any that has been proposed ( verbum pro verbo ). Although there has occasionally been theoretical variety in translating practise, little has changed since antiquity. With the exception of a few extreme metaphrasers in the early Christian era, the Middle Ages, and adapters in various eras particularly pre - Classical Rome, and the 18th century, translators have generally displayed prudent flexibility in seeking equivalents.

Latter could be "literal" when possible, paraphrastic when necessary — for the original meaning and other crucial "values", for e.g., style, verse form, concordance with musical accompaniment, or, in films, with speech articulatory movements. Generally speaking, translators have worked to maintain the context by preserving the original word order and sememe order, and where necessary, by reinterpreting the real grammatical structure, such as switching from active to passive voice or vice versa.

There hasn't been any difficulty in this area due to the grammatical distinctions between "fixed-word-order" languages like French, and German and "free-word-order" languages like Greek, Latin, Polish, and Russian. The specific syntax or the sentence - structure traits of the source language of a text are adequately modified to fit the syntactic specifications of the target language. Source languages and the target languages encompass languages like Hindi , Sanskrit , English and others.

The target language has been enriched by the borrowing of terminology from the source language when the target language lacked those terms. There aren't many notions that are "untranslatable" among the current European languages, largely because of the exchange of calques and loanwords across languages, including Hindi, English , Sanskrit , as well as their importation from other languages. Yet, translating phrases that refer to cultural concepts but have no equivalent in the target language presents a bigger challenge. Such circumstances necessitate the inclusion of a gloss for complete understanding. 

The ratio of metaphrase to paraphrase that can be utilised in translation between two languages is typically higher. This ratio goes up with more contact and exchange that have occurred between them, or between those languages and a third one. A common etymology, however, can occasionally be misleading as a reference to present meaning in either language due to changes in the ecological niches of words. 

Since Terence, a Roman adaptation of Greek comedies from the second century BCE, has been studied, the translator's function as a conduit for "passing across" ideals between cultures. It has also been said that the translator's role is similar to that of an artist because it is by no means a mechanical or passive one. The fundamental foundation appears to be the dual creation theory put out by critics like Cicero.


Translation is a form of sketching after life, according to Dryden. The idea of comparing a translator to an actor or musician dates at least as far back as Samuel Johnson's observation that Alexander Pope performed Homer on a flageolet while Homer himself used a bassoon. In the 13th century, Roger Bacon argued that for a translation to be accurate, the translator must be fluent in both languages as well as the subject matter. When he saw that few translators met this need, he sought to do away with translation entirely.

Martin Luther ( 1483 – 1546 ), who translated the Bible into German, is recognised as the first European to assert that one can only translate successfully into his native tongue. According to L.G. Kelly, translating only into one's own tongue has "been axiomatic" since Johann Gottfried Herder in the 18th century. The fact that no dictionary or thesaurus can ever be a truly appropriate aid in translating adds to the responsibilities on the translator. 

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In his Essay on the Principles of Translation ( 1790 ), the Scottish historian Alexander Tytler noted that diligent reading provides a more complete understanding of a language than dictionaries provide. Onufry Kopczyski, a Polish poet and grammarian, had made a similar statement earlier, in 1783, although he had also included listening to the spoken language. Ignacy Krasicki, the Roman Catholic Primate of Poland, poet, encyclopedist, author of the first Polish book, and translator from French and Greek, describes the specific position of the translator in society in a posthumous 1803 essay titled "The Translator's Special Role in Society."

As translation is in fact a noble and challenging skill, it is not the work or the province of regular people. It should be used by those who are capable of acting independently when they find that translating other people's works is more useful than translating their own. Western translation practises have largely supplanted other practises as a result of colonisation and cultural domination on the part of the West in recent centuries. Ancient, mediaeval, and more contemporary European developments are all incorporated into Western customs.

Despite the fact that previous methods of translation are less frequently utilised now, they nonetheless have use when dealing with their output, such as when historians examine mediaeval or ancient records to piece together events that took place in non-Western or pre-Western surroundings. Chinese and related translation traditions nevertheless adhere to several Chinese-specific theories and philosophies, despite being highly affected by Western traditions and being applied by translators educated in Western-style educational systems.

There are centuries-old translation practises between the languages of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Assyria ( Syriac ), Anatolia, and Israel ( Hebrew ). The Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh ( about 2000 BCE ) has been translated in part into languages of Southwest Asia from the second millennium BCE. The Treaty of Kadesh, signed in 1274 BCE between the Hittite and ancient Egyptian empires, is a prime example of a bilingual treaty. 

The first people to recognise translation as a vocation were the Babylonians. The earliest attempts at translating Greek and Coptic writings into Arabic appear to have been made as early as the late seventh century CE, maybe indirectly from Syriac translations. In the eighth century, the Baghdad translation office was supported by the second Abbasid Caliph.

With its own Translation Department, Bayt al-Hikma, the renowned library in Baghdad, became a significant centre for the translation of literature from antiquity into Arabic thanks to its substantial endowment and multilingual book collection. Beginning in the middle of the eleventh century, when European scholars realised the value of Arab understanding of the ancient literature, particularly following the founding of the Toledo School of Translators in Spain, translations of lost Greek and Roman texts from Arabic into European languages began.

Dictes or Sayengis of the Philosophres ( Sayings of the Philosophers, 1477 ) by William Caxton was an English translation of an Egyptian work from the eleventh century that had first been translated into Latin and then French. The Madrasa al-Alsum ( 'School of Tongues' ), founded in Egypt in 1813 CE, restarted the translation of foreign works for publication in Arabic. 

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