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Chemistry Classes Near Me, Chemistry Tutor Near Me, Chemistry Tuition Classes, Chemistry Teacher Near Me :

Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry Home / Online ( Tutors, Chemistry Teacher, Chemistry Tuition Classes, Chemistry Tutoring Services, Chemistry Lessons, Chemistry Tutor, Chemistry Coaching Classes, Chemistry Tutorials, Chemistry Lectures, Chemistry Seminars, Chemistry Workshops, Chemistry Private Tutors, Chemistry Courses, Chemistry Experts, Inorganic Chemistry Vocational Skills, Inorganic Chemistry Tutors Near Me Class 11, Chemistry Teachers Near Me online class 11, Organic Chemistry Lessons Near Me online class 12, Chemistry Classes Near Me online class 11, Inorganic Chemistry Coaching Classes Near Me, Organic Chemistry Online Tutors Near Me class 12, Chemistry Home Tutors Near Me offline class 11, Online Inorganic Chemistry Online Teacher Near Me class 12, ) for School Grades / Classes Class 6, Class 7, Class 8, Class 9, Class 10, Class 11, Class 12, Medical Entrance Preparation, Engineering Entrance Preparation, Chemistry Olympiads, Chemistry NTSE, Chemistry IIT JEE, Chemistry NEET, SSC, College Chemistry Courses ( BioChemistry, B.Sc, M.Sc, Btech, BE, Haematology, MTech, ME, Pharmacy ), Chemistry Adult Recreational Learners, Chemistry Corporate Trainings, Chemistry Classroom Training near me in Greater Noida West, Greater Noida, Gautam Budh Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, UP, New Delhi NCR, Noida Extension, Gurgaon, Gurugram, Faridabad, Haryana, Ghaziabad, Alwar, Rajasthan, Jaipur, Mumbai, Chennai, Secunderabad, Hyderabad, Bangalore ( Bengaluru ), Pune, India, and, other locations, in India & Abroad ( ( British Columbia - BC, Manitoba, Canada - CA ), New Zealand, USA, UK, London, France, and, other international countries ) :

Chemistry ( Organic Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry ) - Geographical Scope & Preliminary Review :

Chemistry, including organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, and, other sub - branches, is among the critical disciplines of modern day physical sciences. Since time immemorial, Chemistry has been applied and leveraged extensively in various ways. All the applications of Chemistry have been for the development and upliftment of our human centric social systems, as well as the corresponding sociological consequences.

 

Right from ancient days to modern times, Organic Chemistry, and, Inorganic Chemistry, have played indispensable roles in varied functions. Latter include war - fare, utilities' development ( enhancements & demolitions ) , domestic applications, outer space explorations and an ocean of multitude application scopes.

Chemistry has been omnipresent in almost all industrial domains. Rare elements, metals, non - metals, compounds, mixtures, colloids, liquids, metallurgy have been quite pivotal to the existence and evolution of human race. We owe a lot to the science of Chemistry and look forward to further innovations in the near future.​ The scientific study of matter's characteristics and behaviour is known as chemistry.

 

Chemistry is a branch of physical sciences that studies the components of matter, including atoms, molecules, and ions, as well as the compounds they form. It also includes the changes they go through when reacting with other substances, as well as their composition, structure, qualities, and, behaviour. The nature of chemical bonds in chemical compounds is another topic covered in chemistry.

Chemistry sits in between the critical physical sciences and biological sciences' disciplines. Latter pertain to subjects of physics and biology described reasonably in terms of the extent of its topic. It is frequently referred to as the primary science since it establishes a fundamental framework for comprehending both basic and applied scientific disciplines. 

For instance, aspects of plant growth in botany, the formation of igneous rocks in geology, the formation of atmospheric ozone and the degradation of environmental pollutants in ecology, the characteristics of the soil on the moon in cosmochemistry, the action of drugs in pharmacology, and the gathering of DNA evidence at crime scenes in forensics are all explained by chemistry.

Alchemy, a term used to describe a prior set of practises that combined aspects of chemistry, metallurgy, philosophy, astrology, astronomy, physics, Biology, Biotechnology, mysticism, Pharmacy and medicine, underwent a change during the Renaissance, giving rise to the modern word "chemistry." Even while the pursuit of turning lead or other base metals into gold is frequently linked with alchemy, alchemists were also intrigued by many of the issues raised by contemporary chemistry.

The Arabic word al - kīmīā is also the source of the English word alchemy. Since al - kīmīā is a derivative of the Ancient Greek word, it may have Egyptian origins. The latter is derived from the word Kemet, which is the Egyptian language's historical name for Egypt. Alternately, al - kīmīā might be a translation of a Greek term that means "cast together."

The quantum mechanical approach is currently used to explain atomic structure. The study of fundamental constituents such as atoms, molecules, substances, metals, crystals, and, other aggregates of matter is where traditional chemistry begins. It is possible to study matter in its solid, liquid, gaseous, and, plasma phases alone or in combination. Chemistry studies interactions, reactions, and, transformations. These are typically the outcome of atom - to - atom interactions that re - organise the chemical bonds that keep atoms together.

 

A chemistry lab is used to study these behaviours. Different types of laboratory glassware are frequently used in chemistry labs. Glassware, however, is not essential to chemistry and is not used in a significant amount of experimental, applied, and, industrial chemistry. A chemical reaction is the change of one or more chemicals into another. Rearranging electrons in chemical bonds between atoms forms the basis of such a chemical reaction.

 

Chemical equations, which frequently use atoms as subjects, can be used to symbolically represent it. In the equation for a chemical reaction, there are an equal amount of atoms on the left and right. A nuclear reaction or radioactive decay is the name for the transition when there are not an equal amount of atoms on either side. Chemical laws are a set of fundamental guidelines that govern the kind of chemical reactions that a substance can have, as well as, any accompanying energy changes.

Wise Turtle Academy - Geographical Presence & Scope : 

Services' Coverage - ( Overseas & Abroad ) - International / Foreign Locations : 

India, United States, Brazil, United Kingdom, Russia, Vietnam, Turkey, South Korea, Philippines, Indonesia, France, Mexico, Spain, Germany, Argentina, Poland, Canada, Ukraine, Colombia, Taiwan, Egypt, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Romania, Netherlands, Pakistan, South Africa, Bulgaria, Australia, Morocco, Lithuania, United Arab Emirates, Sweden, Chile, Peru, Singapore, Portugal, Unknown Region, Czechia, Serbia, Thailand, Saudi Arabia, Israel, Iraq, Hungary,

 

Ecuador, Algeria, Greece, Switzerland, Venezuela, Austria, Belgium, Georgia, Nepal, Macedonia, Hong Kong, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Kazakhstan, Jordan, Norway, Slovakia, Jamaica, Finland, Ireland, Azerbaijan, Trinidad & Tobago, Mongolia, New Zealand, Belarus, Latvia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Kenya, Guatemala, Cambodia, Palestine, Tunisia, Costa Rica, Iran, Slovenia, Bolivia, Uzbekistan, Paraguay, Uruguay, Honduras, Panama, Croatia, Myanmar (Burma),

 

Kuwait, Qatar, Ghana, Haiti, China, Moldova, Bahamas, Luxembourg, Nicaragua, Libya, El Salvador, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Ethiopia, Guam, Cyprus, Syria, Albania, Nigeria, Armenia, Lebanon, Brunei, Angola, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Oman, Estonia, Côte d’Ivoire, Tanzania, Mauritius, Cameroon, Bahrain, Seychelles, Iceland, Guadeloupe, Montenegro, Maldives, Namibia, Comoros, Congo - Brazzaville, Martinique, Senegal, Afghanistan, Aruba, Turks & Caicos Islands,

 

Mozambique, Curaçao, St. Lucia, Yemen, Uganda, Zambia, Congo - Kinshasa, Malawi, Benin, Mauritania, Madagascar, Puerto Rico, 

Services' Coverage - Pan India ( Across India  - Nationally ) 
Faridabad, Ghaziabad, Delhi ( Kalkaji, Okhla ( Phase - 1, 2, 3 ), Nehru Place, Hauz Khas, South Delhi ( East of Kailash, Kailash Hills, Lajpat Nagar, Okhla Phase 1, Okhla Phase 2, Okhla Phase 3, Srinivaspuri, Kalkaji, Nehru Place, Sant Nagar ), North Delhi, West Delhi, East Delhi ), Gurgaon, Pune, Mumbai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, Secunderabad, Ahmedabad, Alwar ( Rajasthan ), Jaipur ( Rajasthan ), Bhiwadi ( Rajasthan ), Gurugram, New Delhi, Greater Noida West, Faridabad, Ghaziabad, Gurgaon, Gurugram, Delhi, Noida,

 

Telangana, Bhopal, Gandhinagar, Lucknow, Shimla, Mangalore, Chennai, Noida ( viz., ATS Pristine, Sector 150, Sector 144, Sector 148, Sector 125, Sector 76 Metro Station, Aditya Urban Casa Towers A B C D E F G H I J K L, Sector 78, Mahagun Moderne, Sports City, Hyde Park, Amrapali Princely Estate, Mahagun Mirabella, Civitech Stadia, Sectors 76, 77, 79, 80, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75 ) and other nearby locations.

Indian States ( States of India ) : 
Andhra Pradesh, Amaravati, Arunachal Pradesh, Itanagar, Assam, Dispur, Bihar, Patna, Chhattisgarh, Raipur, Goa,    Panaji, Gujarat, Gandhinagar, Haryana, Chandigarh, Himachal Pradesh, Shimla, Jharkhand, Ranchi, Karnataka, Bengaluru, Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Madhya Pradesh, Bhopal, Maharashtra, Mumbai, Manipur, Imphal, Meghalaya, Shillong, Mizoram, Aizawl, Nagaland, Kohima, Odisha, Bhubaneswar, Punjab,    Chandigarh, Rajasthan, Jaipur, Sikkim, Gangtok, Tamil Nadu, Chennai, Telangana,    Hyderabad, Tripura, Agartala, Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow, Uttarakhand, Dehradun (Winter), Gairsain (Summer), West Bengal, Kolkata,

 

Union Territories ( UT of India ) : 
Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Port Blair, Chandigarh, Chandigarh, Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu, Daman, Delhi, New Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir, Srinagar (Summer), Jammu (Winter), Lakshadweep, Kavaratti, Puducherry, Pondicherry, Ladakh, Leh, 

Services' Coverage - Greater Noida, Greater Noida West, Noida Extension, Noida, Gautam Budh Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, UP, India

Core Areas : 
Pari Chowk, Omaxe NRI City, Eldeco Greens, Unitech Habitat, Ace Infrastructure, Super Tech Czar Suites Omicron 1/2/3, IFS Society Villas Pari Chowk, SDS NRI Residency Pari Chowk, The Palms Pocket P 7, ATS Pristine, Jaypee Greens ( Sun Court 1, Crescent Court 3 ) Pari Chowk, Metro Line, Sectors Alpha 1, Alpha Commercial Belt, Beta 1, Mu 1,

 

Alpha 2 Main Market, Mu 2, Ansals Golf Links, Eldeco Meadows, Mu 3, Paramount Golf Foreste Studio Apartments, Mu 4, Beta 2, Gama2, Shisham Estate Gama 1 ( Officer's Colony ), Kadamba Estate, Gamma 1 ( Pocket A Officer's Colony, Pocket B , C, D, E, F, G ), Omega 1, Eta 1, Gamma 2, Omega 2, Eta 2, Chi 1, Omega 3,Eta 3, Chi 2, Omega 4, Chi 3, Knowledge Park 3, Delta 5,

 

Eta 4, Xu 1, Phi 1, Xu 2, Phi 2, Xu 3, Sigma 1, Phi 3, Sigma 2, Jalvayu Vihar Society, Sigma 3, Army Welfare Housing Organisation AWHO Twin Towers Societies, CGEWHO, Gamma 2, Sigma 4, Zeta 1, Builder's Area P 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9, Eachhaar, ari Chowk, Cross Streets, Site A, Estates, Pockets, Blocks A B C D E F, LG Chowk, Gama 1, Pi 1, Gamma 1 ( Officers Colony ),

 

Sigma 1, Mu 1, Chi 1, Tau 1, KP 1, Xu 1, Sigma 2, Mu 2, Pi 2, Gamma 2, Ecotech 1, Gama 2, Xu 2, Tau 2, Alpha 1, Site B, Chi 2, Sigma 3, Pi 3, Tau 3, Mu 3, Alpha 2, Beta 1, Xu 3, Chi 3, Beta 2, Xi 1, Sigma 4, Mu 4, Tau 4, Pi 4, Chi 4, Xu 4, Xi 2, KP 2, Phi 1, Xi 3, KP 3, Phi 2, Omicron 1 A, KP 4, Xi 4, Omicron 2, Tau 5, KP 5, Pi 5, Xi 5, Chi 5, Mu 5, Omicron 3, Zeta 1, Zeta 2,

 

Eta 1, Eta2, Delta 1, Ecotech 2, Delta 2, Knowledge Park 1, Delta 3, Knowledge Park 2, Delta 4, Omaxe Connaught Place Mall, Phi 3, NTPC Colony, Rampur Jagir Chowk, Alpha Commercial Belt, UPSIDC Site C, Surajpur, Uttar Pradesh, Site 1, Site 2, UPSIDC Site C, Site 3, Xi 6, Phi 4, Sigma 5, Site 4, Eldeco Greens, Site 5, Army Welfare Housing Organisation AWHO,

 

Site D, Sharda Hospital, Sector 150, ATS Pristine Sector 150 Towers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10, Sector 144, Phi 5, Unitech Horizon, Ecotech 3, Chi 6, Sector 143, Unitech Habitat, Sector 27, Paramount Golf Foreste, Ansals Golf Links, Jaypee Greens ( Kaveri Gate, Narmada Gate - Star Courts 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ), NTPC Society, Site E, ATS Paradiso, Phi 6,

 

Knowledge Park 4, Swarna Nagari ( Pockets A B C D E F ), Chi 7, NRI City 1 2 3, Silver City 1 2, ACE Platinum, Ecotech 4, The Oasis, The Palms, Builder's Area P 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9, Eachhaar, AVJ Heightss, Migsun Green Mansion, Shivalik Residency, Paramount Villas Society, MSX Alpha Homes, Phi 7, CGEWHO Greater Noida, Site F, Pi 6, Purvanchal Heights,

 

Eldeco Meadows, Knowledge Park 5, Tughalpur Village, Sector 101, Kasna, Yamuna Expressway, Ecotech 5, Sector 31, Wipro Circle Chowk, Sector 32, Rail Colony, Sector 33, Greater Noida Expressway, Sector 34, Rail Society, Sector 35, Toy City, Sector 36, Pi 7, Noida Extension ( Sector 1 Arihant Arden ), Sector 37, Jewar, sector 38, Rail Vihar, sector 39,

 

Jal Vayu Vihar, Sector 40, ATS Paradioso, Ecotech 6, Sector 41, Tilapta Village, Ashiana Orchids, Sector 42, Site G, Tilapta Circle Chowk, Sector 43, Sector 45, Knowledge Park 6, Ecotech 7,

 

Sectors ( 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150 ), 

 

Sector 76 Metro Station, Ecotech 8, Site H, Sector 78 ( Aditya Urban Casa Towers A B C D E F G H I, Hyde Park, Civitech Stadia, Amrapali Princely Estate, Mahagun Mirabella, Sports City, Mahagun Moderne ), ​

 

Swarna Nagari ( Pockets A, B, C, D, E, F ), Phi 4, Zeta 2, Zeta 3, HIG Apartment Omicron 1, Chi 4, Xi 4, Zeta 4, Pi 1, Xu 4, Pi 2, Omicron 2, Ashiana Orchids, Pi 3, MSX Alpha Homes, Rail Vihar, Omicron 3, Pi 4, Swarna Nagri, Knowledge Park 1 ( KP 1 ) KP I, Pi 5, Rampur Jagir, Advocate's Colony, The King's Reserve, Purvanchal Heights, Site 1, Ecotech 1, Site 2, Ecotech 2, Site 3,

 

Ecotech 3, Site 4, ATS Paradioso, Ecotech 4, Site A, The Oasis, IFS Villas, Shivalik Residency, Site B, Oasis Venetia Heights, UPSIDC Site C, Uttar Pradesh, Stellar Mi Legacy, Site D, Silver City 1 2 3, Migsun Green Mansion, Site E, DesignArch, Site 5, Eachhaar, Site 6, Makora, Site 7, Knowledge Park 2 ( KP 2 ) KP II, Rail Colony, Jal Vayu Vihar,

 

Knowledge Park 3 ( KP 3 ) KP III, Ashirwaad Apartments, Tughalpur Village, NTPC Colony, The Palms, Jagat Farm, Kulesra, Officer's Colony, NRI City 1 2 3, NRI Colony , LG Chowk, Surajpur, Kasna Village, Cherry County, Alistair Meadows, The Oasis, AVJ Heightss, ACE Platinum, Alpha Homes ), Greater Noida West ( Gaur City I - 1, Gaur City II - 2, Gaur Chowk ),

 

Pari Chowk, LG Chowk, Gamma 1, Gama 1, Gamma 2, Gama 2, Alpha 1, Xu 1, Mu 1, Pi 1, Chi 1, Sigma 1, Surajpur Site 1, Tau 1, KP 1, Omega 1, Delta 1, Blocks A B C D E F G H I J K L M, Ecotech 1, Eachhaar, Alpha 2, Beta 1, Beta 2, Xi 1, Xi 2, Phi 1, Phi 2, Omicron 1, Omicron 2 A, Omicron 3, Zeta 1, Zeta 2, Eta 1, Eta2, Delta 1, Delta 2, Knowledge Park 1,

 

Knowledge Park 2, Knowledge Park 3, Omaxe Connaught Place Mall, Rampur Jagir Chowk, Alpha Commercial Belt, Surajpur, Sharda Hospital, Sector 150, ATS Pristine Sector 150, Alpha 2, Xu 2, Mu 2, Pi 2, Chi 2, Sigma 2, Surajpur Site 2, Tau 2, KP 2, Omega 2, Sector 144, Sector 143, Sector 27, AWHO, CGEWHO, Swarna Nagari ( Pockets A B C D E F G H I J K L ), Tughalpur Village, Kasna, Greater Noida Expressway,

 

Sector 31, Sector 32, Sector 33, NRI City, Blocks, Sectors, Silver City 1 2 3 4 5, Sector 34, Alpha 3, Xu 3, Mu 3, Pi 3, Chi 3, Sigma 3, Surajpur Site 3, Tau 3, KP 3, Omega 3, Delta 3, Sector 35, Rampur, Sector 36, Alpha 4, Xu 4, Mu 4, Pi 4, Chi 4, Sigma 4, Surajpur Site 4, Tau 4, KP 4, Omega 4, Delta 4,  Sector 37,

 

sector 38, sector 39, Sector 76, Ace Platinum, The King's Reserve, Sector 78 ( Aditya Urban Casa Towers A B C D E F G H I, Hyde Park, UPSIDC Site B, Surajpur, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, Block C, Amrapali Princely Estate, Civitech Stadia, Mahagun Mirabella, Mahagun Moderne ), Migsun Mansion Greens, Shivalik, Jaypee Greens ( Narmada Gate Star Court Tower 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ),

 

Paramount Golf Foreste, Purvanchal Heights, AVJ Heights, MSX Alpha Homes, Rail Vihar, Rail Colony, Jal Vihar, Judge Society, IFS Villas, Ashirvad Apartments, Sector 40, IRDO Colony Apartment, Builder's Area P 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9, Alpha 5, Xu 5, Mu 5, Pi 5, Chi 5, Xi 5, DesignArch, Shivalik, Makora, Tilapta, AVJ Heights,

 

Sigma 5, Surajpur Site 5, Tau 5, KP 5, Omega 5, Delta 5, Sector 41, Sector 42, Noida Extension ( Sector 1 Arihant Arden ), Sector 43, Ace Platina, Ace Platinum, Sector 45, Greater Noida West ( Gaur Chowk, Gaur City 1, Gaur City 2, Saya Zoin ).

Peripheral Areas - Inner : 
Migsun Green Mansion, Stellar MI Legacy, Ratan Vihar, Defence Empire I, Tilpata Golchakkar, Devla, Village Tilpatta, UPSIDC Site C, Site F, Site G, Site H, Site I, Site J, Site K, Site L, Site M, Surajpur Industrial Area, Tata Enclave, Anand Ashray Complex, Chorisia Speciosa Estate, NHPC Society, CGEWHO Project, Kendriya Vihar, Nirman Kunj CPWD Society,

 

Unitech Heights, Vrinda City Apartment, Shri Kripa Kunj, Icon Apartments, Adarsh Vihar Society, Ottoman Turkish Baklava, Green Noida Vertical Garden, Purvanchal Royal City Phase 1, Earthcon Casa Grande 2, Sampada Livia, Express Park View 1 2 Apartments, Durva Greens, Chuharpur Market, Lohiya Enclave, Red Building, Lal Building,

 

Omicron 1A Kali Building, Omicron 1B, Omicron 1C, Omicron 1D, Possession Office, Omaxe Orchid Avenue, Omaxe Society, EWS Society, Stellar MI Citihomes, Ropan, Eldeco Residency Greens, Cassia Estate Society, BSF Housing Society, Aichhar, Parsvnath Estate, Swarn Nagri ( Pockets A B C D E F G H I J K L ), Ambey Bharti Apartment,

 

LG Cooperative Housing Society, Jamia Apartment, Khushboo Apartments, Khushboo Sahkari Awas Samiti, Sun Twilight Villas, Jyoti Kiran Society, White House Apartments, Unitech Cascades Apartment, Tower 1, Tower 15, Tower 18, Plumeria Garden Estate, Fairway Apartment Tower D, Nambardar Residence, Ajju Prajapati Town, Anjana Welfare Society,

 

Paradise Dream City, Defence Empire 2, Eden Golf Group, Victory Enclave, Shyam Enclave, Mahamaya Enclave, Royal Paradise, Prithvi Greens, Bhoomi Greens Phase 2, Shiv Enclave, Kartik Nagar, Himalaya Hi Tech City, Ajnara City, Galactic City, Ace City, Ace Divino, ATS Destinaire, Arihant Ambar,

 

Flora Heritage, The Palm Valley, Akshardham Colony, Noor Colony, Vidyapati Nagar, Jalpura, Jamia Nagar Colony, Tusiana Village, Tusyana, Supertech, Amrapali West, Udyog Vihar, Brahmpur Rajraula, Nawada, Parsvnath Privilege, Parsvnath Edens.

Peripheral Areas - Outer : 
NTPC Society, Nirman Vihar, Techoma Estate, Cassia Fistula Estate, Rasoolpur Rai, Jaitpur Village, Ekanki Enclave ( Block G ), Vimal Sadan Society, Cassia Sigma, Sigma Group Housing Society, Chorosia Estate, Grand Forte, BSNL Society, Kyampur, Ecotech Extension 1, Migsun Ultimo Sun 3, Omaxe Palm Greens, KKS Homes, Ghodi Bachheda, Ghori Bachhera, MamaPikin Suya House, Ebony Estate, Austonia Estate, ATS Paradiso, Lagerstroemia Estate,

 

Cassia Nodosa Estate, Chakrasia Estate, Himsagar Apartment, Mitra Enclave, Surajpur Site 4, Godrej Golf Links, Ansal Golf Links 1, Surajpur Site 1, Surajpur Site 2, Surajpur Site 3, Surajpur Site 4, Surajpur Site 5,

Surajpur Site 6, Block A, Block B, Block C, Block D, Block E, Block F, Block H, Block I, Block J, Block K, Block L, Block M, 1st Cross Street, 2nd Cross Street, 3rd Cross Street, 4th Cross Street, 5th Cross Street, 6th Cross Street, 7th Cross Street, 8th Cross Street, 9th Cross Street, 10th Cross Street, Service Road, First Avenue, Second Avenue, Third Avenue, Fourth Avenue, Fifth Avenue,1st Avenue, 2nd Avenue, 3rd Avenue, 4th Avenue, 5th Avenue, 6th Avenue, 7th Avenue, 8th Avenue, 9th Avenue, 10th Avenue,

 

ATS Dolce, Amrapali Grand Apartment, Migsun Wynn, SKA Metro Ville, Cluster ETA 2, 1st Cross Avenue, 2nd Cross Avenue, 3rd Cross Avenue, 4th Cross Avenue, 5th Cross Avenue, 6th Cross Avenue, 7th Cross Avenue, 8th Cross Avenue, 9th Cross Avenue, 10th Cross Avenue, 11th Cross Avenue, Main Road, Tilpata Karanwas, Luharli, Ajayabpur, Eachachhar, Accher, Habibpur, Gujarpur, Jhatta, Gulavali, Malakpur, Judge Society, Amit Nagar, NTPC Anandam Society,  Purvanchal Silver City 2,

Unitech Horizon, Alistonia Estate, Sector 34, Gulistanpur Village, Gulmohar Estate, Theta 1, Theta 2, Theta 3, Theta 4, Theta 5, Delhi Police Housing Society, Gaur Atulyam, Eldeco Mystic Greens, Palash Estate, Pocket 4, Khadar Ke Marhiya, Dadha, Sadar Tehsil, GNIDA BHS 16 Housing Scheme, Bironda, Haier Industrial Park, Sakipur, Makora, Tugalpur, NSG Society, Gurjinder Vihar.

​​

Pari Chowk, LG Chowk, Gamma 1, Gamma 2, Alpha 1, Alpha 2, Beta 1, Beta 2, Xi 1, Xi 2, Phi 1, Phi 2, Omicron 1, Omicron 2, Omicron 3, Zeta 1, Zeta 2, Eta 1, Eta2, Delta 1, Delta 2, Knowledge Park 1, Knowledge Park 2, Knowledge Park 3, Omaxe Connaught Place Mall, Rampur Jagir Chowk, Alpha Commercial Belt, Surajpur, Sharda Hospital, Sector 150, ATS Pristine Sector 150, Sector 144, Sector 143, Sector 27, Swarna Nagari,

Tughalpur Village, Kasna, Greater Noida Expressway, Sector 31, Sector 32, Sector 33, Sector 34, Sector 35, Sector 36, Sector 37, sector 38, sector 39, Sector 40, Sector 41, Sector 42, Sector 43, Sector 45, etc.. 

There are many more areas covered under our services for, CBSE Class 12th Inorganic Chemistry Home Tuition Classes near me, and, Organic Chemistry Online tutoring. In case, your residential areas within Greater Noida, Greater Noida West, Noida Extension, Noida, Gautam Budh Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, UP, India, New Delhi NCR, Gurugram, Gurgaon, Haryana, India, Ghaziabad, Faridabad, Kherli, Desula, Kathumar, Alwar, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India, and, others, don't show up in the list of above mentioned prominent areas, please do feel free to contact us directly, and, clarify better.

Inorganic Chemistry Home Tutor Near Me, Organic Chemistry Home Tuition Near Me, Chemistry and Maths Tutor Near Me :
​In line with the significance of this branch of study and the express will to disseminate the pertinent knowledge among the interested recipients, Wise Turtle Academy is indeed excited to offer decent quality, contemporary, educational, learning and support services. Latter relates to the academic subject of Chemistry. Delivery of Chemistry learning support services is achieved through our academy's expert and proven dissemination approaches.

 

Latter are, viz., "Chemistry Home Tutors near me offline, offline inorganic chemistry home skill near me offline, inorganic chemistry online tutor near me class 12 chemistry online, home Chemistry Lessons near me offline, online chemistry lecture near me online class 11 chemistry and home Chemistry Tutoring Services near me offline" in Greater Noida West, Delhi NCR, Greater Noida, Gurgaon ( Gurugram ), Noida Extension, Faridabad, Ghaziabad, Alwar ( Rajasthan ), Jaipur ( Rajasthan ), Mumbai, Hyderabad, Bangalore ( Bengaluru ), Pune and other locations.

 

These classes are successfully delivered through varied ways, including, Chemistry Home Tutoring near me, Chemistry Offline Tutoring near me & Chemistry Online Tutoring near me. Latter encompass various academic classes and students of various schools ( for School Classes 5 th, 6 th, 7 th, 8 th, 9 th, 10 th, 11 th, 12 th of local, national and international schools ). We do focus upon preparing for intermediate Board level Engineering Entrance ( IIT JEE, RPET, MPET, UPET, NDA, etc..) and medical entrance ( NEET, etc.. ) examinations.

 

Additionally, several college level courses, viz., Engineering Chemistry in BE ( Bachelor of Engineering ) / BTech ( Bachelor of Technology ), Pharmacy ( D. Pharma ( Diploma in Pharmacy ), B. Pharma ( Bachelor in Pharmacy ) ), ( Bachelor of Sciences ) BSc, ( Master of Science ) MSc, Engineering Polytechnics, ITI ( Industrial Training Institutes ), Technical Certificates, Diploma Courses, and much more is covered under our educational learning and training support services.

In nearly all chemical investigations, energy and entropy issues are crucial. Chemical substances are categorised according to their chemical compositions, phases, and structural characteristics. Chemical analysis tools, such as spectroscopy and chromatography, can be used to examine them. Chemists are scientists who conduct chemical research. The majority of chemists focus on one or more subfields. The study of chemistry requires a number of concepts, some of which are fundamental.

Chemistry defines matter as anything composed of particles that has rest mass, volume, and occupies space. Although some particles, like the photon, do not have rest mass, the particles that make up matter have. A mixture of things or a pure chemical compound can both be considered matter. The simplest unit in chemistry is the atom. It is made up of an electron cloud surrounding a dense core known as the atomic nucleus.

 

The electron cloud is made up of negatively charged electrons that orbit the nucleus, whereas the nucleus is made up of positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons together referred to as nucleons. The protons' positive charge and the negatively charged electrons' balance each other out in a neutral atom. The mass of a nucleon is around 1,836 times that of an electron, and the nucleus is extremely dense. However, an atom's radius is 10,000 times greater than its nucleus.

The atom is also the smallest unit that can be envisioned to preserve the chemical characteristics of the element, such as electronegativity, ionisation potential, preferred oxidation state(s), coordination numbers, and preferred types of bonds to form, such as metallic, ionic, and covalent. A chemical element is a pure material made up of only one type of atom, which is distinguished by the atomic number, which is denoted by the letter Z, and the specific number of protons present in each of its atoms' nuclei.

 

The total number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus is the mass number. Although every atom in a given element will have the same atomic number, not every atom in that element will necessarily have the same mass number; such atoms are referred to as isotopes. For instance, all atoms of the chemical element carbon contain 6 protons in their nucleus, however carbon atoms can also have mass numbers of 12 or 13.

The periodic table, which arranges elements by atomic number, serves as the typical display of the chemical elements. Groups are arranged as columns and Periods as rows in the periodic table. When spotting periodic tendencies, the periodic table is helpful. A pure chemical substance made up of multiple elements is called a compound. A compound's characteristics differ significantly from those of its constituent parts.

 

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry ( IUPAC ) establishes the norms for compound naming. According to the organic naming system, organic substances are named. According to the inorganic nomenclature system, names for inorganic substances are developed. The electropositive and electronegative components are separated into two classes when a compound comprises more than one component.

 

Additionally, a system to index chemical substances has been developed by the Chemical Abstracts Service. Each chemical compound is identified in this system by a number known as its CAS registration number. The tiniest, indivisible unit of a pure chemical substance, a molecule has its own distinct set of chemical properties and the capacity to interact chemically with other molecules in a variety of ways.

This concept, however, only applies to substances made up of molecules, which is not the case for many substances. The majority of the time, molecules are made up of a collection of atoms that are joined by covalent bonds, making the structure electrically neutral and ensuring that all of the valence electrons are in pairs with other electrons, either in bonds or lone pairs. As a result, unlike ions, molecules are electrically neutral entities.

 

The result is frequently referred to as a molecular ion or a polyatomic ion when this rule is broken, giving the "molecule" a charge. However, because molecular ions must typically exist in well - separated forms, such as a directed beam in a vacuum in a mass spectrometer, due to the discrete and separate nature of the molecular notion.

 

Common sulphate or nitrate ions are two examples of charged polyatomic groupings that are found in solids but aren't typically thought of as "molecules" in chemistry. Radicals are created when certain compounds have one or more unpaired electrons. While the majority of radicals are rather reactive, others, like nitric oxide ( NO ), can remain stable.

 

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The "inert" or noble gas elements such as helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon and radon have a single atom as their smallest discrete unit, whereas the other isolated chemical elements are made up of either molecules or networks of atoms that are chemically connected to one another. Unfamiliar things like water, air, and a variety of organic compounds including alcohol, sugar, petrol, and other medications are all made up of recognisable molecules.

The majority of the solid materials that make up the Earth's solid crust, mantle, and core are chemical compounds lacking discrete molecules, proving that not all substances or chemical compounds are made up of discrete molecules. These other forms of things, such ionic compounds and network solids, are structured in such a way that recognisable molecules as such do not exist. As the smallest repeating structure within the material, formula units or unit cells are used instead to discuss these chemicals.

Mineral salts like table salt, solids like carbon and diamond, metals, and well-known silica and silicate minerals like quartz and granite are a few examples of these things. The geometry, often known as a molecule's structure, is one of its primary properties. While the structures of diatomic, triatomic, and tetraatomic molecules may be unimportant, linear, angular pyramidal, etc., the structures of polyatomic molecules, which are made up of more than six atoms of different elements, can be important to the chemical nature of the molecule.

The term "chemical substance" refers to a class of matter with a certain composition and set of characteristics. A mixture is a group of different components. Air and alloys are two examples of mixes. The mole is a unit of measurement that represents a quantity of a substance, often known as a chemical quantity. One mole is defined as containing precisely 6.022140761023 particles, such as atoms, molecules, ions, or electrons; this quantity is referred to as the Avogadro constant. 

The amount of a certain substance per volume of solution is known as molar concentration and is often expressed in mol / dm3. Chemicals can exist in a variety of phases in addition to the distinct chemical characteristics that set them apart. However, some more unusual phases are incompatible with specific chemical properties. For the most part, the chemical classifications are independent of these bulk phase classifications.

A phase is a collection of chemical system states that, under a variety of pressure or temperature conditions, exhibit similar bulk structural features.

Density and refractive index are two examples of physical characteristics that typically lie within phase - specific ranges. The phase transition, which occurs when energy is introduced into or removed from the system in order to rearrange the system's structure rather than alter the bulk conditions, determines the phase of matter.

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In other cases, the phase boundary might be continuous rather than discrete, and in these circumstances, the matter is said to be in a supercritical state. A triple point is created when three states coincide based on the conditions, and since it is invariant, it is an easy approach to specify a group of requirements. Solid, liquid, and gas phases are the most well - known types of phases.

A lot of chemicals have different solid phases. For instance, the three solid iron phases of alpha, gamma and delta change. Latter strongly depend  upon the quantification of various focal physical quantities, like temperature and pressure. The arrangement of the atoms in the crystal structure, or crystal structure, is a key distinction between the various solid phases. 

Plasmas, Bose - Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates and the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases of magnetic materials are examples of less well - known phases. The most well - known phases deal with three - dimensional systems, but two-dimensional systems can also have analogues that can be defined, which has drawn interest because it is relevant to biological systems.

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Atoms that form molecules or crystals together are said to be connected to one another. A chemical bond can be pictured as a multipole equilibrium between the negative charges that oscillate around the nuclei and the positive charges that are inside of them. The energies and distributions describe how readily an electron is available to bind to another atom, going beyond simple attraction and repulsion.

Chemical bonds can form due of the Van der Waals force, hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, or covalent bonds. These relationships all have different potentials associated with them. These interactions are produced by these potentials and keep atoms bound in molecules or crystals. Molecule structure and composition can be explained by valence bond theory, the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion model ( VSEPR ), and the idea of oxidation number in many basic compounds.

A metal loses one or more of its electrons to become a positively charged cation, and the non - metal atom subsequently gains the electrons to become a negatively charged anion. This process creates an ionic bond. The electrostatic force of attraction between the two oppositely charged ions is caused by their ionic connection. For instance, chlorine ( Cl ), a non - metal, receives this electron to become Cl while sodium ( Na ), a metal, loses one electron to form a Na+ cation. 

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Electrostatic attraction holds the ions together, resulting in the formation of sodium chloride ( NaCl ), or regular table salt. An electrically neutral group of connected atoms is known as a molecule when one or more pairs of valence electrons are shared by two atoms in a covalent bond. As a result of valence electron sharing, each atom will have eight electrons in its outermost shell, forming the electron configuration of a noble gas.

 

The term "octet rule" refers to the tendency of atoms to join in a fashion that results in each atom having eight electrons in its valence shell. To achieve this stable arrangement, some elements, like lithium and hydrogen, only require two electrons in their outermost shell. According to the duet rule, these atoms are approaching the helium electron configuration, which has two electrons in its outer shell, and are thus said to be following this rule. 

Many ionic structures can also be predicted using concepts from classical physics. Valence bond theory is less useful for more complex compounds, such as metal complexes, and alternate methods, like the molecular orbital theory, are typically used. Chemistry defines energy as a property of a substance resulting from its atomic, molecular, or aggregate structure. Since a chemical transformation is always accompanied by a change in one or more of these kinds of structures, the energy of the substances involved is either increased or decreased.

 

Heat or light are two ways that energy is transported from the environment to the reaction's reactants.  Therefore, the energy of a reaction's products may be greater or lower than that of its reactants. Exergonic reactions are those in which the final state has a lower energy value than the initial state. Endergonic reactions have the opposite property. 

Chemistry defines energy as a property of a substance resulting from its atomic, molecular, or aggregate structure. Since a chemical transformation is always accompanied by a change in one or more of these kinds of structures, the energy of the substances involved is either increased or decreased. Heat or light are two ways that energy is transported from the environment to the reaction's reactants. Therefore, the energy of a reaction's products may be greater or lower than that of its reactants.

Exergonic reactions are those in which the final state has a lower energy value than the initial state. Endergonic reactions have the opposite property.  

If a reaction emits heat into its surroundings, it is said to be exothermic. Endothermic reactions take heat from their environment as they go. Without the reactants overcoming an energy barrier known as the activation energy, chemical reactions are always impossible.

The Boltzmann's population factor, which is the likelihood that a molecule will have energy greater than or equal to E at the given temperature T, relates the rate of a chemical reaction to the activation energy E at a certain temperature T. The Arrhenius equation describes this exponential relationship between a reaction rate and temperature. 

Heat, light, electricity, or mechanical force in the form of ultrasound can all serve as the activation energy required for a chemical reaction to take place. An associated idea In chemical thermodynamics, free energy, which also takes into account entropy considerations, is a highly helpful tool for forecasting the viability of a process and figuring out the equilibrium state of a chemical reaction. Only when the overall change in the Gibbs free energy is negative is a reaction possible. For electrons, atoms, and molecules, there are only a finite number of potential energy states. 

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Outline of Chemistry ( Organic Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry ) Syllabus for Class 12 ( XII - 12th ) - Part 1 :
 

The Solid State :

General Characteristics of Solid State,

Amorphous and Crystalline Solids,

Classification of Crystalline Solids,

Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells,

Number of Atoms in a Unit Cell,

Close Packed Structures,

Packing Efficiency,

Calculations Involving Unit Cell Dimensions,

Imperfections in Solids,

Electrical Properties,

Magnetic Properties  

 

Solutions :

Types of Solutions,

Expressing Concentration of Solutions,  

Solubility,

Vapour Pressure of Liquid Solutions,

Ideal and Non-ideal Solutions,

Colligative Properties and Determination of Molar Mass,

Abnormal Molar Masses  

Electrochemistry :

Electrochemical Cells,

Galvanic Cells,

Nernst Equation,

Conductance of Electrolytic Solutions,

Electrolytic Cells and Electrolysis,

Batteries,

Fuel Cells,

Corrosion,

Chemical Kinetics,

Rate of a Chemical Reaction,

Factors Influencing Rate of a Reaction,

Integrated Rate Equations,

Temperature Dependence of the Rate of a Reaction,

Collision Theory of Chemical Reactions 

Surface Chemistry :

Adsorption,

Catalysis,

Colloids,

Classification of Colloids,

Emulsions,

Colloids Around Us 

General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements :

Occurrence of Metals,

Concentration of Ores,

Extraction of Crude Metal from Concentrated Ore,

Thermodynamic Principles of Metallurgy,

Electrochemical Principles of Metallurgy,

Oxidation Reduction,

Refining,

Uses of Aluminium,

Copper,

Zinc and Iron

The p - Block Elements :

Group 15 Elements,

Dinitrogen,

Ammonia,

Oxides of Nitrogen,

Nitric Acid,

Phosphorus – Allotropic Forms,

Phosphine,  

Phosphorus Halides,

Oxoacids of Phosphorus,

Group 16 Elements,

Dioxygen,

Simple Oxides,

Ozone,

Sulphur – Allotropic Forms,

Sulphur Dioxide,

Oxoacids of Sulphur,

Sulphuric Acid,

Group 17 Elements,

Chlorine,

Hydrogen Chloride,

Oxoacids of Halogens,

Interhalogen Compounds,

Group 18 Elements );

 

The d - and f - Block Elements :

Position in the Periodic Table,

Electronic Configurations of the d-Block Elements,

General Properties of the Transition Elements (d-Block),

Some Important Compounds of Transition Elements,

The Lanthanoids,

The Actinoids,

Some Applications of d- and f-Block Elements );

Coordination Compounds :

Werner's Theory of Coordination Compounds,

Definitions of Some Important Terms Pertaining to Coordination Compounds,

Nomenclature of Coordination Compounds,

Isomerism in Coordination Compounds,

Bonding in Coordination Compounds,

Bonding in Metal Carbonyls,

Importance and Applications of Coordination,

Compounds

They are established by the laws of quantum mechanics, which call for quantization of the energy in a bound system. Excited molecules and atoms are those with a higher energy state. The molecules and atoms of a substance are frequently far more reactive and therefore more prone to chemical reactions when they are in an excited energy state. An object's energy and the energy of its environment are always what determine the substance's phase.

 

Water ( H2O ), a liquid at room temperature because the molecules are connected by hydrogen bonds, is an example of a substance whose intermolecular interactions are such that they cannot be overcome by the energy of the environment. This occurs in a more ordered phase like a liquid or solid. At normal temperature and standard pressure, hydrogen sulphide ( H2S ) is a solid because the molecules are held together by weaker dipole-dipole interactions.

The magnitude of the energy quanta emitted from one chemical entity determines how much energy is transferred to another. However, since phonons, which are responsible for a substance's vibrational and rotational energy levels, have far less energy than photons, which are used for the electronic energy transfer, heat energy is frequently transferred from one substance to another more readily. Heat is therefore more easily transported between material compared to light or other kinds of electrical energy.

 

This is because vibrational and rotational energy levels are closer together than electronic energy levels. For instance, thermal or electrical energy can be transferred from one substance to another more effectively than UV electromagnetic radiation. The examination of spectral lines can be used to identify distinct chemical compounds by using their characteristic energy levels. Chemical spectroscopy frequently makes use of many spectra, such as IR, microwave, NMR, ESR, etc.

 

By examining the radiation spectra of far - off objects, such as stars and distant galaxies, spectroscopy can also be used to determine the composition of those objects. Chemical energy is a word that is frequently used to describe a substance's capacity to change through a chemical reaction or to change other chemicals. A chemical reaction is defined as the transformation of a chemical substance as a result of its interaction with another material or with energy.

 

As a result, the term "chemical reaction" refers to the "reaction" that occurs when one substance comes into contact with another, whether as a mixture or a solution or is exposed to energy or both. The reaction's components and the system environment, which may consist of specified vessels, often laboratory glassware, exchange some energy as a result. The production or dissociation of molecules is the splitting of a single molecule into two or more molecules is one of the possible outcomes of chemical reactions.

Another possible outcome of chemical reactions could be the rearranging of atoms within or between molecules. Similarly, Chemistry is full of various means and approaches that pertain to various possible outcomes of chemical reactions. Chemical bonds are frequently formed or broken during chemical processes. Common chemical reactions include oxidation, reduction, dissociation, neutralisation of acids and bases, and molecular re - arrangement.

A chemical equation can be used to symbolically represent a chemical reaction. While the number and type of atoms on either side of the equation are equal in a non - nuclear chemical reaction, this is only true for protons and neutrons in a nuclear reaction. The mechanism of a chemical reaction refers to the stages that may result in the re - organisation of chemical bonds during the process. It is possible to imagine that a chemical reaction occurs in a number of steps, each of which may proceed at a different rate. 

Thus, numerous reaction intermediates with varying stabilities might be anticipated throughout a process. To explain a reaction's kinetics and relative product mix, reaction mechanisms are put forth. Numerous physical chemists focus on investigating and putting forth the mechanics of diverse chemical processes. When suggesting a mechanism for a chemical reaction, certain empirical rules, such as the Woodward - Hoffmann rules, are frequently useful. 

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IUPAC's gold book defines a chemical reaction as "a process that results in the interconversion of chemical species." Accordingly, a chemical reaction might be simple or complex in nature. This concept is further qualified by the fact that it takes experimentally observable interconversion of conformers into account. This definition states that such visible chemical reactions typically include sets of molecular entities. 

However, it is frequently conceptually convenient to refer to changes involving a single molecular entity as a microscopic chemical event. A charged species known as an ion is an atom or molecule that has either received or lost one or more electrons. When an atom loses one electron, it becomes a positively charged ion or cation because it now has more protons than electrons.

An atom becomes a negatively charged ion or anion when it picks up an electron, leaving it with more electrons than protons. In the case of sodium chloride, or NaCl, the Na+ and Cl- ions combine to produce a crystalline lattice of neutral salts. Hydroxide ( OH - ) and phosphate ( PO4 3- ) are two examples of polyatomic ions that do not break apart during acid - base interactions. Plasma is made up of gaseous material that has undergone complete ionisation, typically at a high temperature.

Frequently, a chemical can be categorised as either an acid or a basic. There are numerous ideas that account for acid - base behaviour. The Arrhenius theory, which maintains that an acid is something that, when dissolved in water, emits hydronium ions, and a base is something that, when dissolved in water, emits hydroxide ions, is the most basic. According to the Bronsted - Lowry acid - base theory, bases are the chemicals that accept a positive hydrogen ion that an acid donates to another material during a chemical reaction.

The Lewis acid - base hypothesis, which is based on the synthesis of new chemical bonds, is a third prevalent theory. According to Lewis' hypothesis, an acid is a chemical that can take a pair of electrons from a base to establish a new bond, whereas a base is a substance that can give a pair of electrons to form a new bond. The history of this idea shows that there are numerous additional methods to classify a substance as an acid or a base. There are two typical ways to gauge acid strength.

Based on the Arrhenius definition of acidity, one measurement is pH, which measures the concentration of hydronium ions in a solution on a negative logarithmic scale. As a result, low pH solutions have a lot of hydronium ions and are therefore considered to be more acidic. The second measurement, based on the Bronsted - Lowry definition, is the acid dissociation constant ( Ka ), which gauges a substance's resemblance to an acid in terms of how it behaves.

That is, compounds with higher Ka values are more likely than those with lower Ka values to donate hydrogen ions during chemical processes. All chemical processes that modify the oxidation state of atoms by either gaining electrons or reduction or losing electrons or oxidation are referred to as redox or reduction - oxidation reactions. Oxidising agents, oxidants, or oxidizers are terms used to describe chemicals that have the capacity to oxidise other substances.

 

An oxidant depletes another material of its electrons. Reducing agents, reductants, or reducers are terms used to describe chemicals that have the capacity to reduce other substances. A reductant becomes oxidised when it donates electrons to another material. Additionally, it is referred to as an electron donor since it "donates" electrons. The term "oxidation" or "reduction" actually refers to a change in the oxidation number; an actual electron transfer may never take place. 

As a result, it is best to describe oxidation as an increase in oxidation number and reduction as a drop in oxidation number. Although the term "equilibrium" is used frequently throughout the sciences, it is particularly relevant to chemistry whenever it is possible for a substance to exist in more than one type of phase or in a mixture of several chemical compounds that can interact with one another. Even if its composition is constant, a system of chemical compounds in equilibrium is frequently not static.

Nevertheless, the molecules of the substances continue to interact, leading to a dynamic equilibrium. Thus, the idea refers to a situation where variables like chemical composition remain constant across time. Certain laws, which are now fundamental ideas in chemistry, control chemical reactions.

 

Among them are The Avogadro law, Law of Beer - Lambert, Boyle's law ( 1662 ), which links volume and pressure, Volume and temperature are related by Charles' law ( 1787 ), The diffusion laws of Fick, The law of Gay - Lussac ( 1809 ) linking pressure and temperature, The principle of Le Chatelier, Henry's law, Hess's law and more.

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Outline of Chemistry ( Organic Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry ) Syllabus for Class 12 ( XII - 12th ) - Part 2 :
 

Haloalkanes and Haloarenes :

Classification,

Nomenclature,

Nature of C–X Bond,

Methods of Preparation of Haloalkanes,

Preparation of Haloarenes,

Physical Properties,

Chemical Reactions,

Polyhalogen Compounds );

 

Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers :

Classification,

Nomenclature,

Structures of Functional Groups,

Alcohols and Phenols,

Some Commercially Important Alcohols,

Ethers );

 

Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids :

Nomenclature and Structure of Carbonyl Group,

Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones,

Physical Properties,

Chemical Reactions,

Uses of Aldehydes,

Nomenclature and Structure of Carboxyl Group,

Methods of Preparation of Carboxylic Acids,

Physical Properties,

Chemical Reactions,

Uses of Carboxylic Acids );

 

Amines :

Structure of Amines,

Classification,

Nomenclature,

Preparation of Amines,

Physical Properties,

Chemical Reactions,

Method of Preparation of Diazonium Salts,

Physical Properties,

Chemical Reactions,

Importance of Diazonium Salts in Synthesis of Aromatic Compounds );

 

Biomolecules :

Carbohydrates,

Proteins,

Enzymes,

Vitamins,

Nucleic Acids,

Hormones );

 

Polymers :

Classification of Polymers,

Types of Polymerisation Reactions,

Molecular Mass of Polymers,

Biodegradable Polymers,

Polymers of Commercial Importance );

 

Chemistry in Everyday Life :

Drugs and their Classification,

Drug-Target Interaction,

Therapeutic Action of Different Classes of Drugs,

Chemicals in Food,

Cleansing Agents 
 

The principles of equilibrium, thermodynamics, and kinetics are all derived from the law of conservation of energy. Even in contemporary physics, the law of conservation of mass holds true in isolated systems. When non - material "energy" such as heat, light, or kinetic energy is taken out from a non - isolated system, special relativity demonstrates that some mass will also be lost as a result of mass - energy equivalence.

High energy losses cause measurable mass losses, which is a crucial problem in nuclear chemistry. Law of definite composition, despite the fact that in many systems, most notably biomacromolecules and minerals, the ratios typically take the form of fractions and frequently call for huge numbers.
Other prominent laws in Chemistry worth ruminating are the Multiple Proportions Law and the Raoult's law.

The development of chemistry has a long history that dates back to the beginning of time. Civilizations have been using the techniques that would later serve as the foundation for the many fields of chemistry since several millennia BC. Examples include the extraction of metals from ores, the production of pottery and glazes, the fermentation of beer and wine, the extraction of compounds from plants for use in medicine and perfume, the conversion of fat into soap, the production of glass, and the production of alloys such as bronze and many other varied applications.

Alchemy, which used a non - scientific method to comprehend the components of matter and their interactions, came before chemistry. Alchemists performed experiments and recorded the results, setting the scene for modern chemistry even though they were unable to understand the nature of matter and its transformations. 

In his book The Sceptical Chymist in 1661, Robert Boyle who was sceptical of the elements but convinced in alchemy played a significant role in elevating the "sacred art" as a distinct, important, and philosophical profession. While both alchemy and chemistry are concerned with substance and its changes, the scientific approach that chemists used in their work provided the essential distinction.

 

With the work of Antoine Lavoisier, who created a law of conservation of mass that required precise measurement and quantitative measurements of chemical events, chemistry as a body of knowledge distinct from alchemy became a recognised science. The history of thermodynamics and subsequent chemistry are interwoven, particularly because of Willard Gibbs' contributions.

As new findings and hypotheses increase the use of the science, the concept of chemistry has evolved over time. According to renowned scientist Robert Boyle in 1661, the term "chymistry" referred to the study of the physical laws or physics governing mixed bodies. Christopher Glaser, a chemist, defined "chymistry" as a scientific art form in 1663. It taught people how to dissolve bodies, extract many substances that made up those bodies, unite those substances once again, and elevate those substances to higher perfection.

Georg Ernst Stahl defined "chemistry" in 1730 as the science of dissolving mixed, compound, or aggregate substances into their fundamental components and creating such entities from those components. Jean - Baptiste Dumas used the term "chemistry" to describe the branch of science that studied the rules and effects of molecular forces in 1837. This definition continued to alter until, in 1947, Linus Pauling accepted it to imply the science of substances, their structure, their qualities, and the reactions that transform them into other substances.

In 1998, Professor Raymond Chang expanded the concept of "chemistry" to include the study of matter and the transformations that it goes through. 

Early civilizations including the Egyptians, Babylonians, and Indians gathered practical knowledge about the arts of metalworking, pottery, and dyeing but didn't create a formal theory. Aristotle's idea of the four elements, which stated unequivocally that fire, air, earth, and water were the primary ingredients from which everything is made as a mixture, is credited with establishing the first basic chemical hypothesis in Classical Greece. 

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Greek atomism first appeared in writings by philosophers like Democritus and Epicurus in 440 BC. The Roman philosopher Lucretius developed the idea in his work De rerum natura or On the Nature of Things, which was published in 50 BCE. Greek atomism was solely philosophical in origin, unlike contemporary ideas of science, and it paid little attention to empirical observations or chemical experiments.

In ancient Greek philosophy, the idea that "Nothing comes from nothing" may be found in Empedocles about the 4th century BC, is an early example of the concept of mass conservation. "Because nothing can be created from nothing, and nothing can be brought about to completely destroy what is," the author writes. The author Epicurus stated that "the totality of things was always such as it is now, and always will be" in his description of the nature of the universe in the third century BC.

The practise of alchemy initially spread throughout the Hellenistic world. Alchemy manifested mixing occultism and magic into the study of natural ingredients. The ultimate objective was that of transforming materials into gold and finding the elixir of perpetual life. Early Byzantine times saw the continuation of work, particularly the development of distillation, whose most notable practitioner was the Greek - Egyptian Zosimos of Panopolis in the fourth century.

After the Muslim conquests, alchemy continued to be developed and practised throughout the Arab world. Through Latin translations, it spread from there and from Byzantine relics into mediaeval and Renaissance Europe. The Arabic writings ascribed to Jabir ibn Hayyan offered a methodical taxonomy of chemical compounds and detailed know how to chemically create the inorganic compound like sal ammoniac or ammonium chloride from organic materials including plants, blood, and hair.

Some Arabic Jabirian writings, such as the "Book of Mercy" and the "Book of Seventy," were later translated into Latin under the Latinized name "Geber." In the 13th century in Europe, an unidentified author began to publish alchemical and metallurgical writings under this name. This writer is often referred to as pseudo - Geber. Ab al - Rayhn al - Brn and Avicenna, two later and significant Muslim thinkers, questioned alchemical doctrines, particularly the theory of the transmutation of metals.

The old alchemical traditions were being reshaped into a scientific field by a group of chemists at Oxford under the influence of the new empirical methods advanced by Sir Francis Bacon and others. These scientists included Robert Boyle, Robert Hooke, and John Mayow. In The Sceptical Chemyst, Boyle in particular challenged numerous accepted chemical theories and advocated that chemical practitioners should be more "philosophical" and less commercially oriented.

In addition to developing Boyle's law, he rejected the traditional "four elements" and put out a mechanistic alternative based on atoms and chemical interactions that could be subjected to careful experimentation. Many significant discoveries were made in the ensuing decades, including the fact that 'air' is actually made up of a variety of gases. In 1754, the Flemish Jan Baptist van Helmont and the Scottish chemist Joseph Black discovered carbon dioxide, sometimes known as "fixed air."

In addition to discovering hydrogen and defining its characteristics, Joseph Priestley and Carl Wilhelm Scheele independently obtained pure oxygen. It wasn't until the end of the century that French chemist Antoine Lavoisier, the chemical equivalent of Isaac Newton in physics, disproved Georg Ernst Stahl's idea of phlogiston, the material at the core of all combustion. By clarifying the concept of mass conservation and creating a new system of chemical nomenclature that is still in use today, Lavoisier had done more than any other scientist.

 

He put new science on a solid theoretical foundation. John Dalton, an English physicist, developed the current theory of atoms, which states that all substances are made up of indivisible units of matter called "atoms" and that each atom has a unique atomic weight. Early in the 19th century, two scientists in particular, viz., Jöns Jacob Berzelius and Humphry Davy, developed the electrochemical theory of chemical combinations. This was made feasible by Alessandro Volta's earlier creation of the voltaic pile.

 

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By using electric current to separate the alkali metals from their oxides, Davy identified nine new elements, including them. William Prout, a British scientist, was the first to suggest classifying all the elements according to their atomic weights because every atom has an exact multiple of the atomic weight of hydrogen. An early periodic table was created by J.A.R. Newlands, and it was later improved upon by Dmitri Mendeleev and a number of other scientists, notably Julius Lothar Meyer, separately in the 1860s.

 

Due to a number of extraordinary discoveries that were successful in exploring and understanding the very nature of the interior structure of atoms, the theoretical foundations of chemistry were finally comprehended at the turn of the twentieth century. The electron was discovered in 1897 by J.J. Thomson of the University of Cambridge. Shortly after, Becquerel of France and the married couple Pierre and Marie Curie looked into the phenomenon of radioactivity.

 

Ernest Rutherford at the University of Manchester carried out a number of groundbreaking scattering experiments that revealed the existence of the proton and the internal structure of the atom. He also identified and categorises various forms of radioactivity and successfully transmuted the first element by bombarding nitrogen with alpha particles.

The Danish physicist Niels Bohr, the Englishman Henry Moseley, and the German Otto Hahn built on his work on atomic structure. These three men later founded the burgeoning field of nuclear chemistry and discovered nuclear fission. Scientists Linus Pauling and Gilbert N. Lewis from the United States created the electrical theory of chemical bonding and molecular orbitals. 2011 has been dubbed the "International Year of Chemistry" by the United Nations.

It was a joint project of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation and the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, and it involves chemical societies, academic institutions, and organisations all over the world. Local and regional activities were organised by individuals at the local and regional levels. Justus von Liebig and others created organic chemistry in response to Friedrich Wöhler's urea synthesis.

Edward Frankland's understanding of valence bonding in 1852 and J. W. Gibbs and Svante Arrhenius's application of thermodynamics to chemistry in the 1870s were two other significant 19th century developments. Typically, chemistry is broken down into a number of different sub-disciplines. There are a number of important, cross-disciplinary and more specialised chemical fields as well.

Analytical chemistry is the study of material samples to determine their chemical structure and content. Standardised experimental techniques in chemistry are included in analytical chemistry. With the exception of strictly theoretical chemistry, these techniques are applicable to all branches of chemistry. The study of the chemicals, chemical processes, and interactions that occur in living things is known as biochemistry.

 

As in medicinal chemistry or neurochemistry, biochemistry and organic chemistry are tightly connected. Additionally connected to genetics and molecular biology is biochemistry. The study of an inorganic compound's characteristics and reactions is known as inorganic chemistry. There is a lot of overlap between the fields of organic and inorganic chemistry, most notably in the subfield of organometallic chemistry, and the distinction between them is not always clear-cut.


The synthesis, characterisation, and comprehension of compounds with a practical function are the three pillars of materials chemistry. A brand-new topic of study for graduate students, it combines components from all traditional branches of chemistry with a focus on basic problems that are particular to materials. The chemistry of condensed phases, i.e., solids, liquids, and polymers, as well as interfaces between various phases, are important study areas. 

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The study of neurochemicals, such as transmitters, peptides, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids, as well as their interactions and the functions they play in the development, upkeep, and modification of the nervous system, is known as neurochemistry. The study of nuclear chemistry focuses on how subatomic particles combine to form nuclei. Nuclear chemistry includes a significant amount of modern transmutation, and the table of nuclides is a key output and resource in this area.


The study of organic molecules' structures, characteristics, compositions, processes, and reactions is known as organic chemistry. Any compound with a carbon backbone is referred to be an organic compound. The study of the physical and fundamental underpinnings of various chemical systems and processes is known as physical chemistry. Physical chemists are especially curious about the dynamics and energetics of such systems and processes.

Chemical kinetics, electrochemistry, statistical mechanics, spectroscopy, chemical thermodynamics, and more recently astrochemistry, are important fields of research. The fields of molecular physics and physical chemistry sometimes intersect. Infinitesimal calculus is used to derive equations in physical chemistry. It frequently comes up in discussions about theoretical chemistry and quantum chemistry.

 

Chemical physics and physical chemistry are two separate fields, albeit there is significant overlap. The study of chemistry through basic theoretical reasoning, typically in the context of mathematics or physics, is known as theoretical chemistry. Quantum chemistry, in specifically, is the study of chemistry through the lens of quantum mechanics. 

Computational chemistry, the art of creating and using computer science CS, python coding, programming to solve chemical problems—has undergone a methodical development since the end of World War II thanks to the advancement of computers. Theoretical and experimental condensed matter physics and molecular physics share a lot of ground with theoretical chemistry.


Others include polymer chemistry, radiochemistry, sonochemistry, supramolecular chemistry, synthetic chemistry, flavour chemistry, flow chemistry, immunohistochemistry, hydrogenation chemistry, mathematical chemistry, molecular mechanics, organometallic chemistry, petrochemistry, photochemistry, physical organic chemistry and many others.

A subatomic particle that is not made up of other particles is referred to as an elementary particle or fundamental particle in the study of particles. Electrons, fundamental fermions ( like quarks, leptons, antiquarks, and antileptons, which are typically matter particles and anti - matter particles ), and fundamental bosons ( gauge bosons and the Higgs boson ), which typically are force particles that mediate interactions among fermions, are among the particles currently thought to be elementary.

A composite particle is one that contains two or more elementary particles. Ordinary matter is made up of atoms, which were once thought to be elementary particles. The Greek word for atom is atomos, which means "unable to be cut," though up until about 1905, some of the world's top physicists believed that molecules were mathematical artefacts and that matter was ultimately made up of energy. 

Early in the 1930s, the electron and proton, together with the photon, a particle of electromagnetic radiation, were discovered to be subatomic components of the atom. A single particle appeared to be able to traverse a field like a wave at that time, a paradox that is still not fully explained by quantum physics, which had just recently emerged. It was discovered through the application of quantum theory that protons and neutrons include up quarks and down quarks.

Latter are today regarded as elementary particles. Additionally, the electron's three degrees of freedom, the charge, spin, and orbital, can split into three quasiparticles, viz., holon, spinon, and orbiton, via the wave function within a molecule. However, a free electron, which lacks orbital motion since it is not orbiting an atomic nucleus, seems un - splittable and is nonetheless recognised as an elementary particle. 

 

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Around 1980, a more pragmatic perspective, expressed in particle physics' Standard Model, known as science's most experimentally successful theory, replaced the notion that an elementary particle is in fact an elementary particle and an ultimate constituent of substance. Many extensions of the Standard Model and ideas beyond it, like supersymmetry, double the number of elementary particles by speculating that each known particle has a "shadow" partner that is far more massive than it, albeit no such super - partners have yet been found.

 

The graviton, a basic boson that mediates gravitation, is still an improbable concept. Either fermions or bosons make up all elementary particles. The quantum statistics that fermions and bosons follow are Fermi - Dirac and Bose - Einstein, respectively,  that distinguish these classes. The spin - statistics theorem allows for the differentiation of their spin, which is half - integer for fermions and integer for bosons.

For prediction purposes, elementary particles in the Standard Model are represented as point particles. The Standard Model, despite being quite successful, is constrained by the absence of gravitation and has several parameters that were introduced haphazardly but without some  explanation. Current big bang nucleosynthesis models predict that the primordial observable matter of the universe should be composed of roughly 75% hydrogen and 25% helium-4 ( in mass ).

 

Protons consist of two up and one down quarks, whereas neutrons are made up of one up and two down quarks. We can disregard the mass contribution of the other common fundamental particles, such as electrons, neutrinos, or weak bosons, to the total mass of the observable cosmos because they are so light or uncommon in comparison to atomic nuclei. So it follows that the majority of the universe's observable mass is made up of protons and neutrons, which, like other baryons, are made up of up quarks and down quarks.

According to some calculations, the observable universe contains about 1080 baryons, which are virtually exclusively protons and neutrons. The Eddington number is the total number of protons in the universe as it is now understood. According to some estimations, neutrinos, which make up the bulk of the approximately 1086 fundamental particles of matter that exist in the visible universe, account for nearly all the matter, excluding dark matter.

Other calculations suggest that, excluding dark matter, there are around 1097 fundamental particles in the observable universe, principally photons and other massless force carriers. The Higgs boson, which was reported to have been likely detected by the two main experiments at the Large Hadron Collider, the ATLAS and CMS, on July 4, 2012, is one of the elementary bosons that mediate the forces. It is one of the 12 varieties of elementary fermions along with their corresponding antiparticles.

However, since it is unknown if the Standard Model is compatible with Einstein's general relativity, it is commonly regarded as a tentative theory,  rather than a truly basic one. There might be fictitious elementary particles that are not included in the Standard Model, such as the graviton, which would be the carrier of gravity, and sparticles, which are supersymmetric partners of regular particles. 

Each of the three generations of the 12 fundamental fermions has four particles. The neutrinos, the only elementary fermions with neither electric nor colour charge, make up the other three leptons. Of the six elementary fermions, three of them, the electron, the muon, and the tau, have electric charges of one. Quarks make up the remaining six particles. 

The quantum chromodynamics version that is employed to explain quark interactions affects estimates of the values of quark masses. Values for quark masses cannot be directly determined since quarks are always enclosed in a gluon envelope that gives the mesons and baryons where quarks occur a significantly larger mass. Small variations in the calculation result in substantial variations in the masses since their masses are so small in comparison to the effective mass of the surrounding gluons.

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Along with these 12 fundamental fermionic particles, there are 12 fundamental fermionic antiparticles. For instance, the electron's antiparticle, the antielectron, the positron, has an electric charge of +1. The absence of isolated quarks and antiquarks can be explained by confinement. Each quark carries one of the strong interaction's three colour charges, while antiquarks do the same. Similar to how charged particles interact with one another via photon exchange, color - charged particles interact via gluon exchange.

 

But because gluons have their own colour charges, when color - charged particles are separated, the strong force is amplified. Color - charged particles experience a growing force, as opposed to the electromagnetic force, which decreases as charged particles disperse. However, color - charged particles may combine to create hadrons, which are color - neutral composite particles. A quark and an antiquark can team up because each has an anticolor that corresponds to its colour. 

The anticolor and colour cancel each other out to create a color - neutral meson. As an alternative, three quarks, one of which is "red," another "blue," and a third "green" can coexist. Together, these three coloured quarks create a colourless baryon. A color - neutral antibaryon can be created symmetrically by three antiquarks of the colours, viz, "antired," "antiblue," and "antigreen." Although hadrons, whose electric charges are all integral, contain quarks, which also carry fractional electric charges, fractional charges have never been isolated. 

Deep inelastic scattering, which involves shooting electrons at nuclei to map the distribution of charge within nucleons, which are baryons, provides proof that quarks exist. If the charge is constant, the proton's electric field will also be constant, and the electron will scatter elastically. This is how low-energy electrons scatter, however at a certain energy, protons deflect some electrons at enormous angles. An energetic jet of particles is released as the electron recoils with much less energy.

 

This inelastic scattering shows that the proton's charge is distributed among smaller charged particles called quarks rather than being uniform. In the Standard Model, the Higgs boson with spin - 0, which mediates forces, accounts for the intrinsic mass of particles, while vector with spin - 1 bosons, including gluons, photons, and the W and Z bosons, mediate forces. The Pauli exclusion principle allows many bosons to share a quantum state, which distinguishes bosons from fermions.

 

Bosons can also be either combinational particles like mesons or fundamental particles like photons. Boson spin is an integer rather than a half-integer. Strong interaction, which unites quarks to create either baryons - the three quarks or mesons - one quark and one antiquark, is mediated by gluons. The atomic nucleus is made up of baryons, which are made up of protons and neutrons. Like quarks, gluons exhibit colour and anticolor, which are not related to the idea of visual colour, but rather the strong interactions between the particles.

 

There are eight different types of gluons in all. W+, W, and Z0 are the three weak gauge bosons. The weak interaction is mediated by them. The W bosons are well known for playing a role in nuclear deterioration. A neutron is transformed into a proton by the W, which then decays into an electron and an electron-antineutrino pair. Instead of changing particle flavour or charges, the Z0 alters momentum. 

It is the sole method for scattering neutrinos in an elastic manner. The momentum change in electrons caused by neutrino - Z exchange led to the discovery of the weak gauge bosons. The electromagnetic interaction is mediated by the massless photon. The electroweak interaction between elementary particles is made up of these four gauge bosons.

Although to us the weak and electromagnetic forces seem very distinct at low energy, it is believed that at high energies the two forces combine to form the electroweak force. Measurements of the cross - sections for high - energy electron - proton scattering at the DESY HERA collider amply supported this hypothesis. The high masses of the W and Z bosons, which are a result of the Higgs process in turn, are the cause of the disparities at low energies.

 

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The Higgs chooses a specific route in electroweak space by the process of spontaneous symmetry breaking, causing three electroweak particles to become extremely heavy, the weak bosons, and one to stay with an unspecified rest mass since it is always in motion, the photon. The Higgs boson was declared to have been seen at CERN's Large Hadron Collider on July 4, 2012, following several years of experimentally looking for proof of its existence.

 

At the announcement was Peter Higgs, who initially proposed the existence of the Higgs boson. It is estimated that the Higgs boson weighs about 125 GeV. This discovery's statistical significance was given as 5 sigma, which corresponds to a 99.99994% confidence level. This is the level of significance needed in particle physics to formally classify experimental results as a discovery. The characteristics of the recently found particle are still being studied. 

 

A hypothetical primary spin-2 particle called the graviton has been hypothesised to mediate gravitation. It is occasionally listed in tables of elementary particles, but it hasn't been found because of how hard it is to detect. The typical graviton has no mass, while there are models with enormous Kaluza - Klein gravitons. Even though the Standard Model's predictions are overwhelmingly supported by experimental data, certain of its parameters, such as the hierarchy problem, were added at random.

 

They are therefore still a mystery. These flaws are addressed by theories other than the Standard Model. One Standard Model extension seeks to unify the strong interaction and electroweak interaction into a single "grand unified theory" ( GUT ). A mechanism akin to the Higgs would cause such a force to spontaneously split into the three forces. It is thought that this breakdown happens at high energies, which makes it challenging to witness unification in a laboratory.

 

The presence of X and Y bosons, which induce proton decay, is the most dramatic prediction of the grand unification theory. By introducing even another class of symmetries to the Lagrangian, supersymmetry expands the Standard Model. These symmetries swap fermionic for bosonic particles. Supersymmetric particles, also known as sparticles and consisting of sleptons, squarks, neutralinos, and charginos, are predicted to exist via such symmetry.

 

According to the Standard Model, every particle would have a superpartner with a spin that is half that of the primary particle. The sparticles are substantially heavier than their regular counterparts as a result of the breaking of supersymmetry; current particle colliders would not be able to produce them due to their weight. The Large Hadron Collider at CERN, according to some researchers, will be able to find signs of spherical particles. 

 

According to the main version of the theory, M-theory, all "particles" that make up matter are made of strings with a length of one Planck length, and they live in an 11- or 12-dimensional ( according to F - theory ) cosmos. Mass, electric charge, colour charge, and spin are all determined by the various frequencies at which these strings vibrate. A "string" might be open like a line or closed in a loop, like a circle, a one-dimensional sphere. A phenomenon known as a world sheet is swept out as a string travels across space. 

 

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Using the uncertainty principle, string theory predicts 1 - to 10 - branes. A 1 - brane is a string and a 10 - brane is a 10 - dimensional object, which prevent tears in the "fabric" of space. For example, the electron orbiting a hydrogen atom has the possibility, albeit, a small one, that it could be anywhere else in the universe at any given time. According to string theory, the three space dimensions and one temporal dimension we can observe are contained within a single 4 - brane.

 

The remaining 7 hypothetical dimensions either do not or cannot exist in our universe. This is because they exist in a larger framework known as the "multiverse" outside our known universe. Or, they are extremely little and curled up and hence not macroscopically accessible. According to some predictions of the string theory, there could be enormously large counterparts of common particles caused by vibrational excitations of the fundamental string. There could be a massless spin-2 particle that functions similarly to a graviton.

By adding a new QCD - like interaction, Technicolour theories attempt to minimally alter the Standard Model. This implies adding a new theory of so-called Techniquarks and Technigluons interacting. The main contention is that these particles exist in bound states, and that the Higgs boson is not one of them. There are one or more orders of particles that are more fundamental than those or most of those identified in the Standard Model, according to preon theory.

Preons, which is derived from "pre - quarks," are typically referred to as the most fundamental of these. Preon theory essentially seeks to do for the Standard Model, what the Standard Model accomplished for the particle zoo that came before it. The majority of theories assume that practically all of the predictions of the Standard Model can be translated into three to six additional fundamental particles and the laws governing their interactions. Since the simplest models were experimentally excluded from preons in the 1980s, interest in preons has decreased. 

The hypothetical subatomic particles known as "accelerons" are intrinsically linked to the dark energy that is theorised to be speeding up the universe's expansion in order to explain the neutrino's newly discovered mass. According to this idea, the interactions between neutrinos and accelerons result in a brand - new force that influences neutrinos and causes dark energy. As the universe strives to draw neutrinos apart, dark energy is created. Compared to neutrinos, accelerators are thought to interact with matter less frequently. 

Base Metals - A Summary : 

As contrast to a precious metal like gold or silver, a base metal is a common and affordable metal. Although base metals have also been used in coins in the past and are still used now, in numismatics coins are frequently valued based on the precious metals they contain. Base metals can be separated from noble metals by quickly oxidising or corroding and reacting in different ways with dilute hydrochloric acid ( HCl ) to produce hydrogen. Nickel, lead, iron, and zinc are a few examples.

 

Though it doesn't react with HCl, copper is nonetheless regarded as a base metal due to how rapidly it oxidises. Base metals are industrial non - ferrous metals that do not include precious metals and are referred to as such in mining and economics. These include zinc, lead, nickel, copper, and copper. Incorporating more elements into its definition of commercial base metals is the U.S. Customs and Border Protection department. Its list also contains the following metals. 

 

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Iron and steel, aluminium, tin, tungsten, molybdenum, tantalum, cobalt, bismuth, cadmium, titanium, zirconium, antimony, manganese, beryllium, chromium, germanium, vanadium, gallium, hafnium, indium, niobium, rhenium, and thallium, as well as their alloys. The base metal, which is copper in Sheffield plate, is what lies beneath the plating metal when discussing objects made of plated metal.

Philosopher's Stone - A Review : 

The philosopher's stone, or philosophers' stone more accurately, is a legendary alchemical material that has the power to transform base metals like mercury into gold or silver. It is also referred to as the "elixir of life" and is beneficial for regenerating cells and gaining immortality. It was the alchemist's ultimate ambition for many ages. The philosopher's stone served as the primary representation of the mystical alchemical vocabulary, denoting the pinnacle of perfection, enlightenment, and heavenly pleasure.

 

The Magnum Opus or "Great Work" was the name given to the quest to find the philosopher's stone. The Cheirokmeta, written by Zosimos of Panopolis in 300 AD, contains the oldest recorded literary mention of the philosopher's stone. Authors of alchemy give it a lengthier backstory. According to Elias Ashmole and the anonymous author of Gloria Mundi ( 1620 ), the knowledge of the stone may be traced back to Adam, who received it directly from God. Biblical patriarchs were thought to have inherited this wisdom, which contributed to their longevity.

 

The biblical account of the Temple of Solomon and the rejected cornerstone mentioned in Psalm 118 were also contrasted with the stone's tale. Greek philosophy serves as the theoretical foundation for the production of the stone. Later alchemists compared their method to the creation stories provided in works like Plato's Timaeus, the classical elements, and the idea of anima mundi. According to Plato, the prima materia ( first matter ), which is associated with chaos, is the source from which the four elements are derived.

 

Prima materia is another term used by alchemists to refer to the basic component used to make the philosopher's stone. The significance of this fundamental philosophical question persisted throughout alchemy's history. According to Thomas Vaughan's writings from the seventeenth century, "the first matter of the stone is the very same with the first matter of all things." The early mediaeval alchemists in the Byzantine and Arab empires expanded on Zosimos's ideas. 

 

Metal transmutation captivated Byzantine and Arab alchemists, and they tried to perform the procedure. Each classical element was examined in terms of the four fundamental qualities by the Muslim alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan ( also known as Geber ), who lived in the eighth century. Earth was cold and dry, water was cold and damp, and air was hot and humid. Fire was both hot and dry. He postulated that these four principles, two of which were inside and two of which were outer, were combined to form every metal.

 

On the basis of this premise, it was hypothesised that changing a metal's fundamental properties may transform it into a different metal. A substance that later became known as xerion in Greek and al - iksir in Arabic ( from which the name elixir is derived ) would act as a medium for this transition. It was frequently believed to be made of the philosopher's stone, a fabled stone that was thought to exist as a dry red powder ( also known as al-kibrit al-ahmar, red sulphur ). Later Arab alchemists began to view the elixir powder as an essential element of transmutation. 

 

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Chemists in the Muslim world disagreed over whether it was feasible to transmute substances in the 11th century. One of the most influential opponents was the Persian polymath Avicenna ( Ibn Sina ), who refuted the theory of substance transmutation by saying, "Those of the chemical craft know well that no change can be effected in the different species of substances, though they can produce the appearance of such change." The philosopher's stone was allegedly discovered by Albertus Magnus, a scientist and philosopher who lived in the 13th century.

 

In his writings, Magnus does not explicitly state that he discovered the stone, but he did mention that he saw gold being "transmuted" into gold. Alkahest was a hypothetical element that the 16th - century Swiss alchemist Paracelsus ( Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim ) claimed to exist and from which the other elements ( earth, fire, water, and air ) were merely derivative forms. This substance, according to Paracelsus, was the philosopher's stone. 

 

In his spiritual testament Religio Medici ( 1643 ), the English philosopher Sir Thomas Browne identified the theological component of the search for the philosopher's Stone by saying as follows. The small amount of the Philosophers Stone I possess, which is more than just pure gold exalted, has taught me a great deal about divinity. The Mutus Liber, a metaphysical book written in the 17th century, seems to be a symbolic guide for creating a philosopher's stone. It was referred to as the "wordless book" and contained 15 images. 

 

The Cintamani, also known as Chintamani, is the Buddhist and Hindu religions' interpretation of the philosopher's stone. Other names for it include Paris ( Marathi ) and Paras or Parasmani ( Sanskrit, Hindi ). Avalokiteshvara and Ksitigarbha, two bodhisattvas, are said to hold Chintamani in Mahayana Buddhism. On Tibetan prayer flags, the Lung ta ( wind horse ), which is also seen carrying it, is represented.

 

According to Buddhist tradition, one can gain the wisdom of Buddhas, comprehend the truth of the Buddhas, and transform suffering into Bodhi by reciting the Dharani of Chintamani. On one's deathbed, it is claimed to enable one to perceive Amitabha's Holy Retinue and his gathering. In Tibetan Buddhist tradition, the Chintamani is sometimes pictured as a brilliant pearl that is held by a number of various Buddha forms. It has a connection to the Hindu gods Ganesha and Vishnu.

 

In Hindu tradition, it is frequently portrayed as a magnificent jewel in the Nga king's possession or as being on the forehead of the Makara. There is a tale about the philosopher's stone in the Yoga Vasistha, which was first composed in the tenth century AD. A renowned Hindu guru used the philosopher's stone as a metaphor to describe the spiritual accomplishment of gnosis. A commentary by Sant Jnaneshwar ( 1275 – 1296 ) has 17 allusions to the philosopher's stone, which expressly transforms base metal into gold. 

 

The road to immortal divinity for man is described in Siddhar Thirumoolar's epic Tirumandhiram, written in the seventh century. He claims in verse 2709 that the name of God, Shiva, is an alchemical tool that transforms the physical body into indestructible gold. The Shymantaka Mani is another representation of the philosopher's stone. Hindu mythology describes the Shymantaka Mani as a ruby with the power to both produce eight bhras ( about 170 pounds or 77 kilograms ) of gold daily and to stop all natural disasters like as floods, droughts, etc. surrounding its possessor. 

 

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The most frequently mentioned qualities are the capacity to change base metals into gold or silver, as well as the capacity to cure all diseases and lengthen the lives of those who ingest a small amount of the philosopher's stone diluted in wine. Other abilities suggested include the ability to create permanently burning lamps, turn ordinary crystals into gems and diamonds, revive dead plants, make flexible or malleable glass, and create clones or homunculi. 

 

The philosopher's stone has been described in a wide variety of ways. Alchemical writings claim that the philosophers' stone came in two types, each made using a nearly identical process: red for making gold and white for making silver, with the white stone being a less developed form of the red stone. Alchemical books from antiquity and the middle ages provide information about the physical characteristics of the philosophers' stone, particularly the red stone. When reduced to powder, it is frequently described as being orange ( saffron - colored ) or red.

 

Or, in a solid form, a transparent, glass - like colour that is halfway between red and purple. It is soluble in all liquids and incombustible in fire, and its weight is compared to that of gold. Some alchemical writers feel that the stone's descriptions are symbolic. In Atalanta Fugiens Emblem XXI ( 1617 ), by Michael Maier, the appearance is stated geometrically as follows: "To create the Stone of the Wise, start with a man and woman, then create a circle, a quadrangle, a triangle, and finally another circle.

 

The stone is produced in this manner, and you cannot find it until you diligently study this geometrical lesson. He goes on to elaborate on the metaphysical significance of the symbol's meaning as a divine fusion of feminine and male principles. The Philosophers would similarly reduce the quadrangle into a triangle, that is, into the three components known as body, Spirit, and Soul. For instance, the body, or earth, can be seen in Saturn's blackness, the Spirit can be seen in the moon's whiteness, which is water, and the Soul, or air, can be seen in the sun's citrinity.

 

The triangle will then be ideal, but this must also be transformed into a circle, or an unavoidable redness. By performing this procedure, the woman is transformed into a man and made one with him, and the senate completes the first number of the perfect by adding one and two after returning to an entity where there is perpetual peace and repose. Rupescissa makes use of the imagery of the Christian passion, claiming that it rises "from the sepulchre of the Most Excellent King, shining and glorious, resuscitated from the dead and wearing a red diadem." 

 

Long - standing conjecture about the philosopher's stone's composition and origin has been sparked by the different titles and characteristics that have been given to it. Metals, plants, rocks, chemical compounds, and physiological by products including hair, urine, and eggs have all been shown to include exoteric possibilities. According to Justus von Liebig, "it was essential that every substance available should be observed and examined." 

 

Alchemists previously believed that a legendary ingredient called carmot had a crucial role in the production of the stone. Esoteric hermetic alchemists might forego working with exoteric materials in favour of turning inward in their quest for the philosopher's stone. Although esoteric and exoteric perspectives are occasionally blended, it is evident that certain authors "are not concerned with material substances but are employing the language of exoteric alchemy for the sole purpose of expressing theological, philosophical, or mystical beliefs and aspirations"

 

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The spagyric, chemical, and esoteric schools of thinking continue to inspire new interpretations. It has also been suggested that the conversion the stone facilitates is a psychological procedure. In a chapter of his book, The Sufis, Idries Shah provides a thorough explanation of the symbolic meaning of using the philosopher's stone in alchemical processes. His study is based in part on an interpretation of the Arabic names for the stone ( Azoth) , as well as for sulphur, salt, and mercury, using their Arabic counterparts. 

 

The alchemical process known as The Magnum Opus or The Great Work produces the philosopher's stone. The instructions for making the philosopher's stone vary, and are sometimes described as a series of colour changes or chemical reactions. The work may go through stages of nigredo, albedo, citrinitas, and rubedo when expressed in colour. It typically has seven to twelve phases, with multiplication and projection as their last stages, when stated as a series of chemical reactions. 

 

Numerous artistic works, including animations, comics, movies, musical compositions, books, and video games, have used the philosopher's stone as an inspiration, component of the story, or theme. Examples include The Mystery of Mamo, Fullmetal Alchemist, As Above, So Below, and Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone. The philosopher's stone is a crucial Gothic literary trope that first appeared in William Godwin's 1799 book St. Leon. 

Nuclear Transmutation - Brief Look :  

One chemical element or isotope can become another chemical element through nuclear transmutation. Nuclear transmutation happens whenever the quantity of protons or neutrons in an atom's nucleus changes. Nuclear reactions, in which an outside particle combines with a nucleus, or radioactive decay, where no external cause is required, can both result in a transmutation. The vast majority of the most prevalent elements in the universe, such as helium, oxygen, and carbon, were formed by natural transmutation by stellar nucleosynthesis, which also continues to this day.

 

Most of the heavier chemical elements in the known existent universe were created in the past. The majority of stars undergo transmutation through hydrogen and helium fusion events, while much larger stars are also capable of fusing heavier metals up to iron later in their history. Elemental transmutations, which can naturally take place in supernovae, are the process by which heavier elements than iron, such as gold or lead, are produced. The transformation of base materials into gold, one of alchemy's goals, can now be accomplished only physically rather than chemically.

 

Significantly less energy is generated from each fusion process as stars start to fuse heavier elements. This keeps going until it gets to iron, which is created through an endothermic reaction that uses energy. In those conditions, no heavier element can be created. When certain radioactive elements present in nature spontaneously decay by a method that causes transmutation, such as alpha or beta decay, that results in transmutation, that is one sort of natural transmutation that can now be observed.

 

One instance is the organic breakdown of potassium - 40 into argon - 40, which creates the majority of the argon in the atmosphere. As a result of cosmic ray bombardment of elements (for example, to create carbon-14), as well as sporadically from natural neutron bombardment ( for example, natural nuclear fission reactor ), natural transmutations from the various mechanisms of natural nuclear reactions take place on Earth as well. Machinery with enough energy to alter the nuclear structure of the elements may undergo artificial transmutation.

 

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Particle accelerators and tokamak reactors are examples of such devices. Conventional fission power reactors also result in artificial transmutation by exposing components to neutrons produced by fission from an artificial nuclear chain reaction, rather than by the power of the machine itself. For instance, fission occurs when a uranium atom is hit by slow neutrons. This releases a significant quantity of energy and, on average, 3 neutrons. When all the uranium is used up, the neutrons that were released cause the fission of other uranium atoms. It's known as a chain reaction. 

 

The possibility of using artificial nuclear transmutation as a way to lessen the quantity and danger of radioactive waste has been explored. Alchemy is where the word transmutation first appeared. Alchemists sought the philosopher's stone, which had the power to perform chrysopoeia, or turning base metals into gold. Chrysopoeia was frequently seen by alchemists as a metaphor for a mystical or religious process, but other practitioners took it literally and attempted to manufacture gold through physical experimentation.

 

Since the Middle Ages, alchemists, philosophers, and scientists have disputed whether it is possible to transmute metals. Beginning in the fourteenth century, pseudo - alchemical transformation was forbidden and openly mocked. Alchemists who exposed false promises of creating gold were Heinrich Khunrath and Michael Maier in their writings. By the 1720s, no reputable individuals were still engaged in the physical transformation of material into gold. 

 

John Dalton further expanded the idea of atoms ( from the alchemical theory of corpuscles ) to explain numerous chemical processes. Antoine Lavoisier replaced the alchemical theory of elements with the current theory of chemical elements in the 18th century. Atomic disintegration is a unique process requiring significantly higher energy than those attainable by alchemists. In 1901, when Frederick Soddy and Ernest Rutherford found that radioactive thorium was transforming itself into radium, they for the first time consciously applied it to modern physics.

 

Soddy later said that when he finally understood, he exclaimed, "Rutherford, this is transmutation!" For Christ's sake, Soddy, don't call it transmutation, retorted Rutherford. We'll be executed for being alchemists. Natural transmutation was being seen by Rutherford and Soddy as it occurred during the alpha decay type of radioactive decay. Patrick Blackett, a research associate working under Rutherford, carried out the first artificial transmutation in 1925 by converting nitrogen into oxygen using alpha particles directed at nitrogen.

 

Rutherford demonstrated in 1919 that a proton, which he identified as a hydrogen atom, was released during alpha bombardment experiments, but he was unaware of the remaining nucleus. The first experimental proof of a synthetic nuclear transmutation process came from Blackett's 1921 – 1924 investigations. Blackett properly identified the remnant nucleus and the underlying integration process. 

 

Rutherford's colleagues John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton completed a totally artificial nuclear reaction and nuclear transmutation in 1932 by using lithium-7 to divide the nucleus into two alpha particles and artificially accelerated protons. Despite not being the contemporary nuclear fission reaction found in 1938 by Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner, and their helper Fritz Strassmann in heavy elements, the achievement was described as "splitting the atom," a term that still applies today.

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Mercury was nuclearly transformed into gold in 1941, according to research by Rubby Sherr, Kenneth Bainbridge, and Herbert Lawrence Anderson. The evolution of the transmutation of elements within stars, which explains the relative abundance of heavier elements in the cosmos, occurred later in the twentieth century. Stellar nucleosynthesis was responsible for the abundance of all elements heavier than boron, with the exception of the first five elements, which were created during the Big Bang and associated cosmic ray processes.

 

The abundances of virtually all chemical elements aside from the lightest could be described by the process of nucleosynthesis in stars, according to William Alfred Fowler, Margaret Burbidge, Geoffrey Burbidge, and Fred Hoyle in their 1957 paper Synthesis of the Elements in Stars. The opposite reaction, which the alchemists had fervently sought to achieve, is far harder to achieve under real nuclear transmutation than the former. By storing gold in a nuclear reactor for a long time, it would be simpler to convert it into lead through beta decay and neutron capture. 

 

Glenn Seaborg successfully converted thousands of bismuth atoms into gold atoms, but at a net loss. The universe's hydrogen ( including all deuterium ) and helium are assumed to have originated from the Big Bang. The mass of ordinary matter in the universe is made up of 98% hydrogen and helium, with the remaining 2% being everything else. Lithium, beryllium, and possibly boron were also produced in minor quantities during the Big Bang. Later, in a process known as cosmic ray spallation, more lithium, beryllium, and boron were generated. 

 

All other elements, from carbon to uranium, that are found naturally in the cosmos as stable isotopes and primordial nuclides are the result of stellar nucleosynthesis. These happened during star formation, which followed the Big Bang. Asymptotic giant branch ( AGB ) stars produced lighter elements like carbon and iron inside of stars and then discharged those elements into space. These are a particular class of red giant that periodically "puffs" out some of the elements in its outer atmosphere, including iron, nickel, and carbon.

 

Neutron capture, which is further divided into the r - process and the s - process, produces all elements with atomic weights more than 64 atomic mass units in supernova stars. The Solar System is believed to have evolved from a cloud of hydrogen and helium containing heavier elements in dust grains generated earlier by a huge number of such stars roughly 4.6 billion years before the present. The heavier elements created through transmutation earlier in the universe's history were present in these grains. 

 

All of these natural transformations of stars are still happening today, both in our galaxy and in other galaxies. To create energy, stars combine hydrogen and helium to form ever - heavier elements. For instance, the recorded light curves of supernova stars like SN 1987A show them ejecting massive quantities of radioactive nickel and cobalt into space, an amount similar to Earth's mass. But just a small portion of this content reaches Earth.

 

The production of carbon - 14 by cosmic rays, the radioactive decay of radioactive primordial nuclides like potassium-40, uranium, and thorium, as well as the radioactive decay of these nuclides' byproducts ( radium, radon, polonium, etc. ), are what drive the majority of natural transmutation on Earth today. This does not, however, eliminate the requirement for a deep geological repository for high - level radioactive waste.

 

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These isotopes have the ability to undergo nuclear fission when exposed to rapid neutron radiation in a nuclear reactor, which destroys the original actinide isotope and creates a variety of radioactive and nonradioactive fission products. Neutron bombardment of actinide-containing ceramic targets can trigger transmutation events that eliminate the most challenging long - lived species. These can be actinide - containing solid solutions, or only actinide phases like AmO2, NpO2, NpN, and AmN mixed with certain inert phases like MgO, MgAl2O4, ( Zr , Y )O2, TiN, and ZrN.

 

Non - radioactive inert phases serve primarily to give the target steady mechanical behaviour while being bombarded with neutrons. However, there are drawbacks to this partitioning and transmutation ( P&T ) approach. First, it is constrained by the expensive and time-consuming requirement to separate long - lived fission product isotopes in order for them to go through transmutation. Furthermore, some long-lived fission products' low neutron capture cross sections prevent them from accumulating enough neutrons for efficient transmutation. 

 

According to a recent study led by Satoshi Chiba at Tokyo Tech, "Method to Reduce Long-Lived Fission Products by Nuclear Transmutations with Fast Spectrum Reactors" demonstrates that effective transmutation of long - lived fission products can be accomplished in fast spectrum reactors without the need for isotope separation. A moderator made of yttrium deuteride can help achieve this. For example, plutonium can be transformed into mixed oxide fuels and processed again in conventional reactors.

 

This is however constrained by the buildup of Plutonium - 240 in spent MOX fuel, which is neither particularly fertile nor fissile with thermal neutrons ( transmutation to fissile Plutonium - 241 does occur, but at lower rates than production of more Plutonium - 240 from neutron capture by Plutonium-239 ). Even nations with considerable nuclear reprocessing capabilities, like France, often do not utilise the Plutonium content of old MOX fuel.

 

The heavier elements could be converted in fast reactors, but a Carlo Rubbia - designed subcritical reactor, also referred to as an energy amplifier, is likely more efficient. Also suggested as suitable are fusion neutron sources. There are a number of fuels that can have some plutonium in their initial composition at the start of their cycle and less of it at the conclusion. During the cycle, electricity can be produced by burning plutonium in a power reactor.

 

This procedure is intriguing not just because it can provide power, but also because it can utilise leftover weapons - grade plutonium from the weapons programme and plutonium produced by reprocessing old nuclear fuel. One of these is mixed oxide fuel. Its mixture of low-enriched uranium and plutonium oxides serves as an alternative to the fuel primarily employed in light water reactors. 

 

Despite being burned, plutonium will result in the production of second generation plutonium due to the presence of uranium in mixed oxide and the radiative capture of U - 238 and two subsequent beta minus decays. Additionally available are fuels made of thorium and plutonium. Th-232 in these absorbs the neutrons that are emitted when plutonium fissions. After this radiative capture, Th - 232 changes into Th - 233, which then proceeds through two beta - minus decays to produce the fissile isotope U - 233.

 

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Th - 232 has a radiative capture cross section that is more than three times larger than that of U - 238, resulting in a higher conversion to fissile fuel than U - 238 does. The lack of uranium in the fuel prevents the production of second - generation plutonium, and the amount of plutonium burned will be greater than with mixed oxide fuels. But the spent nuclear fuel will contain the fissile element U - 233. Both reactor - grade and weapons - grade plutonium can be utilised in plutonium - thorium fuels. 

 

However, weapons - grade plutonium exhibits a greater reduction in Pu - 239 than reactor - grade plutonium. Transmutation is a process that turns some radioactive fission products into radioisotopes with shorter half - lives. Grenoble is studying the transmutation of all fission products with half-lives longer than a year, with varied degrees of success. Manufacturers employ pot metal ( also known as monkey metal ), an alloy of metals with low melting points, to create castings quickly and affordably.

 

Monkey Metal or Pot Metal - An Abstract :

The name "pot metal" originated from the practise of collecting non-ferrous metal scraps from manufacturing operations at automobile plants in the early 20th century and melting them in a single pot to form into cast products. While small amounts of iron were frequently incorporated into the castings, major amounts were never done so because too much iron would cause the melting point to rise too high for straightforward casting processes. 

 

In contrast to other ways of dyeing glass in sheet form, "pot metal" or "pot metal glass" refers to glass that has been dyed with metal oxides while it is molten in a pot. Pot metal does not have a metallurgical standard. Pot metal frequently contains the following metals: zinc, lead, copper, tin, magnesium, aluminium, iron, and cadmium. Pot metal's main benefit is that it can be cast quickly and easily. It requires neither complex casting machinery nor specialised moulds due to its low melting temperature.

 

Before casting finished products in a higher quality alloy, manufacturers occasionally use it to test moulds and concepts, such as prototypes. Pot metal has a propensity to bend, twist, fracture, shatter, and pit with age, so depending on the precise metals "thrown into the pot," it can become unstable over time. Since zinc has a low boiling point and cools quickly after being cast, air bubbles are frequently trapped inside the part, weakening it. 

 

Internal corrosion of the metal frequently results in decorative plating flaking off, and many components found in pot metal are prone to corrosion from ambient acids and other pollutants. Pot metal is difficult to weld, solder, or glue. In the late nineteenth century, the term "pot metal" especially referred to an alloy of copper and lead. Common compositions included those with 67% copper, 29% lead, 4% antimony, and another with 80% copper and 20% lead. 

 

Zinc is the main element in pot metal, although the caster frequently combines it with other metals to strengthen the cast item, enhance the flow of the molten metal, or cut costs. Zinc is frequently alloyed with other metals like lead, tin, aluminium, and copper due to its low melting point of 420 °C ( 786 °F ). Parts that are not subject to strong loads or torque are typically made of pot metal. Toys, furniture accents, tool parts, electronics, automobile parts, cheap jewellery, and makeshift weapons are all made using pot metal.

 

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The back covers on some HMV no.4 soundboxes and HMV no.5 soundboxes are remarkable instances of pot metal being used to make gramophone parts in the late 1920s and early 1930s. Before cone speakers were created, it was also employed to create loudspeaker transducers for use with early radio horn speakers. Additionally, it is utilised in low - cost electric guitars and other reasonably priced musical instruments. 

Zinc Pest - An Introduction : 

A destructive intercrystalline corrosion process of zinc alloys containing lead impurities is referred to as zinc pest ( from the German Zinkpest ), also known as zinc rot and zamak rot. While alloy impurities are the root of the issue, adverse environmental factors like excessive humidity ( more than 65% ) may hasten the process. It was initially identified as an issue in 1923 and mostly affects die - cast zinc products produced during the 1920s and 1950s. In order to solve the issue, the New Jersey Zinc Company created zamak alloys in 1929 using 99.99% pure zinc metal.

 

Since 1960, products are typically thought to be free of the risk of zinc pest due to the use of purer materials and more controlled manufacturing processes that make zinc pest degradation unlikely. Surface imperfections like tiny cracks and fractures, blisters, or pitting may be seen on affected objects. The material slowly expands over time, cracking, buckling, and warping in an irreversible process that renders the thing extremely fragile and prone to fracture.

 

Eventually, the object may shatter and be completely destroyed. The expanding process could cause associated normal material to become damaged as well. Both the quantity of lead impurities in the metal and the storage circumstances of the item over the following decades affect the occurrence and severity of zinc pest in products produced of sensitive zinc alloys. Collectors of vintage die - cast model trains, toys, or radios fear zinc bug because it can irrevocably ruin rare or otherwise valuable goods, making them worthless.

 

Some copies of a given toy or model may exist today perfectly undamaged, while other similar examples may have completely disintegrated, as castings of the same object were typically manufactured from different batches of metal over the production process. Carburetors, hubcaps, door handles, and other automobile decor from 1920s and 1930s cars have also been impacted. 

 

Since the 1940s, some model railway enthusiasts have asserted, with different degrees of success, that 'pickling' zinc alloy parts by soaking them in vinegar or oxalic acid solution for a few minutes before painting and assembling them could avoid or delay the effects of zinc pest. Older aircraft or car engines, as well as military awards made of zinc alloys, may be impacted. Also known to be damaged are the copper-plated zinc Lincoln cents that were produced after 1982. 

 

Tin pest and the surface white corrosion oxidation process ( also known as "Weissrost" ) that some zinc items are subject to are unrelated to each other. 

Bronze Disease - A Precis : 

When chlorides come into contact with bronze or other alloys containing copper, a corrosion process known as "bronze disease" that is both irreversible and almost unstoppable takes place. Both a dark green covering and a much lighter, white fuzzy or hairy green coating are possible. It is not a bacterial illness, but rather the outcome of a chemical interaction with the chlorides, which typically happens as a result of the bronze object being contaminated by saltwater or being buried in particular kinds of soil that contain chloride salts.

 

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Untreated damage could result in the damaged artefact being completely destroyed. Treatment can be exceedingly expensive, time-consuming, and ineffective. The disease can spread if chlorides from the contaminated item are transferred to other antiquities. Chloride corrosion of cuprous ( copper - based ) artefacts is referred to as bronze illness. At first, it was believed that bacteria were to blame. Because the chlorides that cause it can spread the disease when they come into touch with another cuprous substance, it is contagious. 

 

Bronze sickness, despite its name, doesn't just harm bronze. It can damage any alloy that contains copper. It can harm current metals like cupro - nickel coins and is not just limited to antique things. Bright green to pastel green can be found in bronze illness. Due to the chain of events that result in it, it is frequently present in all colours in this spectrum, and there might also be tiny, possibly microscopic blue crystals. When severe, bronze illness can cause isolated regions of the object to develop pitting as well as a visually and tactilely elevated bloom of small crystals.

 

A wooden pick or a fingernail can be used to scrape the golden disease patches from the surface. All of these characteristics are in contrast to verdigris, which typically has a duller tint, is consistent throughout the damaged object, and cannot be removed with wood or fingernails. Verdigris, as opposed to bronze sickness, protects the metal. As it depends on the presence of chlorides, water, and oxygen, the progression is halted by the lack of any one of these three, however any damage is irreparable. 

 

Treatment for the problem usually entails physically removing the chlorides ( by scrubbing ), removing them chemically or electrochemically, and then isolating the object from oxygen, water, and potential chloride contamination using an airtight container or a wax coating. These processes could also get rid of any patina, which collectors and conservators frequently view as undesirable but which is still preferable than losing the item. Due to the presence of chlorides in seawater, bronze illness is frequent or even ubiquitous on objects retrieved from a maritime environment.

 

Due to the humidity and salt carried by the air, coastal places may potentially be dangerous. In the same way that buried metals may not develop a patina or that oxidation of the metal may be reversed, absence of soluble salts and oxygen means that buried things may not be harmed when interred. Bronze illness may be hidden or protected by surface encrustations when an artefact is retrieved. Chlorides may appear in or on the metal.

 

It is as a result of contamination from dirt, water ( particularly seawater ), the atmosphere, human perspiration, or as a result of impurities that were there when the thing was made. In many situations, chlorides may be present inside the artefact. If the sickness is not isolated from water and / or oxygen, it may recur. The object may be initially treated by being placed in a desiccating atmosphere. The reaction can't go on without water. However, the process can be restarted by exposing the object once more to water, even atmospheric water.

 

Bronze illness, along with comparable visual issues brought on by other moieties, is still a topic of current research in the field of object conservation. The chlorides must be eliminated. In actuality, this entails manual cleaning to remove the majority of the chlorides ( with a wooden or even metal pick ) and then chemical treatment. Soaking the item in a 5% sodium sesquicarbonate solution is one chemical treatment. By doing this, the metal-attacking acid is neutralised and the reactive cuprous chloride is transformed into the mostly inert cuprous oxide.

 

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The oxide may generally discolour the metal or coat the object in ugly but unharmful black patches. For seriously polluted goods, the soaking process may last for days, weeks, or even a whole year. As it creates a complex ion with copper, the sesquicarbonate may remove copper from the artefact. In contrast to the chilly bath used by professional conservators, amateurs claim that the patina may be peeled from the artefact when the solution is heated to a boil, causing the carbonate rinse to remove the chlorides in hours. 

 

Alternate methods include soaking in sodium carbonate, which is slower than sesquicarbonate but unlikely to harm the patina, or benzotriazole aqueous solutions. Sesquicarbonate and carbonate have comparable effects. The benzotriazole works as a physical barrier to water, oxygen, and chlorides instead of removing the chlorides or neutralising the acid present, and can therefore be employed as a final step in all circumstances but as a first or only step in only minor cases. 

 

Using tap water for the initial carbonate rinses is acceptable since it has a lower chloride content than water that has had chlorides from contaminated artefacts dissolved in it. Although the chlorine from a chlorinated town water supply is likely to have evaporated from tap water within 24 hours and will thus not further contaminate the object, subsequent rinses should be performed with distilled water. Electrolysis can be used in place of rinses. It frequently uses mild or stainless steel as the anode and sodium carbonate as the electrolyte.

 

The cuprous ions are changed into elemental copper as a result. The artefact may develop a reddish covering made of the elemental copper that was liberated from the chlorides. A coin might just take a few hours, but a major relic like a cannon might take months. Since there is no proven long-term cure for bronze disease, the specimen should be kept in a dry place and periodically checked for recurrence. If chloride ions have gotten deeper than the surface, a more intensive therapy is needed. 

 

This usually entails soaking the specimen in acetone to remove any water. A benzotriazole ( BTA ) - ethanol solution is then added to the mixture, chelating the copper and rendering it inert. Pits and holes can be filled with zinc powder, which is then covered in shellac painted in the specimen's colour. Commercially available waxes made with BTA are designed to reduce exposure to water, air, and chlorides by acting as a physical barrier while the BTA chelates the copper on the surface to prevent any reactions.

 

Waxing over an infected object, however, will not solve the issue. Bronze illness can also be avoided by isolating the object from chlorides and keeping it fully dry or oxygen - free. 

 

Verdigris - Relook : 

Depending on their chemical makeup, several toxic copper salts of acetic acid can range in hue from green to a bluish-green and are collectively referred to as "verdigris." From antiquity till the late 20th century, verdigris was employed for artistic purposes, such as easel painting, polychromatic sculptures, and map illumination. Verdigris was frequently used as a colour agent and in therapeutic products. For centuries, women controlled a major production facility in Montpellier, France, serving as a significant source of female employment.

 

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Verdigris, which was the most vivid green colour available until the 19th century, was commonly employed in paintings. However, as other green pigments became widely accessible, its popularity decreased because of its volatility. Its hydration level and basicity, which alter as the pigment interacts with other components over time, are what cause the instability of its look. Women from Montpelier, France, who had the optimum environment for producing pulverised verdigris, long predominated the industry.

 

It was a successful enterprise, and licenced female brokers sold 80% of the produce abroad. In order to combat expanding fraudulent practises during its heyday, in the 1710s, the government had to impose inspection mechanisms. Verdigris manufacture had shifted away from Montpellier by the 20th century, and after World War I, more affordable ways to make green pigments caused the business to decline. Acetic acid is used to treat copper ( II ) hydroxide to create copper ( II ) acetate.

 

Verdigris production techniques have been described in aesthetic treatises, alchemy documents, books on natural history, and medical texts. The most often utilised components were vinegar and copper. Recipes have evolved over time. In the Middle Ages, acetic acid was used to adhere copper strips to a wooden block, which was subsequently buried in dung. The block was to be excavated and the verdigris scraped off a few weeks later. In Montpellier in the 18th century, a different technique of production was created. 

 

It used clay pots filled with distilled wine and copper plates placed on top of one another. Crystals formed on the copper as a result of the grapes' acidity. When the crystals reached maturity, they turned verdigris and were scraped off. The collective name for copper acetate, whose chemical variations result in various colours, is verdigirs. The technical literature's descriptions of these variances are erratic. Some publications refer to "blue verdigris" as Cu ( CH3 CO2) 2CuO ( H2O ) 6 and "neutral verdigris" as copper ( II ) acetate monohydrate ( Cu ( CH3 CO2 ) 2 ( H2O ) ).

 

According to other sources, the primary copper salt in naturally occurring verdigris is brochantite, or Cu4 SO4 ( OH ) 6. Another set of publications refers to it as basic copper carbonate ( Cu2 CO3 ( OH ) 2 ) or Cu ( CH3 CO2 ) 2 ( Cu ( OH ) 2 ) n, where n ranges from 0 to 3. Tribasic copper chloride ( Cu2 ( OH ) 3Cl ) is the primary copper salt found in marine environments. Verdigris variants can be broadly classified into two categories: neutral verdigris and basic verdigris. The degree of basicity and amount of moisture affect colour differences. 

 

Since ancient times, verdigris has been employed as a pigment, and it can be found in paintings from Rome and Pompeii. Verdigris was still used in Renaissance, Baroque, and Middle Ages paintings. Giotto's The Last Supper from 1306 contains this motif. Its transparency and brilliance made it popular for use in paintings during the 15th and 16th centuries. Due to the restrictions of the available green, yellow, and blue pigments, it was challenging to produce powerful green colours in paintings.

 

Verdigris was frequently employed in early Italian, Dutch, and German paintings to produce clean green tones for landscapes and clothing, such as the green coat worn by Saint John in Raphael's Mond Crucifixion. Verdigris was employed as an opaque paint as well as a glaze. Verdigris glaze produced a highly saturated green when mixed with lead white or lead - tin yellow. For French and Dutch country houses, it was used into oil - based house paint. On European lacquer, verdigris was also applied as a 'Chinese varnish' ripoff.

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However, as emerald green and viridian gained popularity during the 19th century, verdigris's use started to decline. The curing rust of the Spear of Telephus, which Homer mentions, is identified in the Pharmacologia of John Ayrton Paris as verdigris, which has also been employed in medicine. In the 18th century, verdigris solids were also included in medicinal formulations for the treatment of canker sores. Poisonous verdigris exists. Toxic effects include nausea, anaemia, and eventual death.

 

According to certain theories, exposure can lead to immunity development, as was the case with Montpellier's female workers. But the toxicity is still very high. Its use has therefore gradually decreased in favour of harmless alternatives. Verdigris can change colour over time. The first month of exposure to air is when the alterations are the most noticeable. The modifications also rely on the binding agent and verdigris varieties employed. For instance, compared to basic verdigris, changes in oil and egg tempera are less pronounced with neutral verdigris.

 

The green pigment in these products will start to turn brown or darker with time. For instance, the blue - green angels' robes in Botticelli's 1500 painting The Mystical Nativity have turned a dark green shade. Verdigris is lightfast in oil paint, as seen by numerous examples of paintings from the 15th century. In other media, nevertheless, its air resistance and lightfastness are incredibly low. Even in oil paint, copper resinate, which is created by boiling verdigris in a resin, is not lightfast.

 

Green copper resinate transforms into stable brown copper oxide in the presence of light and air. The transitory production of Cu ( I ) in the pigment and oil system is thought to be the cause of the browning mechanism. The optical characteristics of the pigment change as a result of the reduction of Cu ( II ) into Cu ( I ) brought on by the release of a carboxylate. Linseed oil also causes the copper acetate bimetallic structure to change and creates monomeric series.

 

The pigment darkens due to a reaction between dioxygen and partially decarboxylated dimers that results in the formation of a peroxy - Cu dimer complex. Verdigris has been characterised in earlier writing on painting as unstable when mixed with other pigments, which causes further deterioration. Due to the temperamental nature of the pigment, it required particular paint preparation, meticulous layering, and immediate sealing with varnish to prevent rapid deterioration ( but not with oil paint ).

 

 The obstacles may be less severe than previously thought, according to new scientific studies. Nevertheless, the pigment has the capacity to destroy cellulosic materials, including paper. In order to distinguish between different verdigris phases in historical artworks and to reproduce them, current technology and reproducible synthesis techniques have been devised. According to the provided historical formulas, several copper ( II ) acetates, which make up ancient verdigris pigments, are only partially replicable. 

Patina - A Look : 

Patina is a thin layer that can develop on the surface of copper, brass, bronze, and other similar metals and metal alloys ( tarnish produced by oxidation or other chemical processes ), as well as on some stones and wooden furniture ( sheen produced by age, wear, and polishing ), or on any other surface that has undergone a similar acquired change as a result of exposure to the elements. In addition, the phrase is used to describe how premium leather ages. The type of leather, how often it is used, and the amount of exposure all affect how patinas appear on leather goods. 

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Materials that might otherwise be harmed by corrosion or weathering can benefit from patinas, which act as a protective covering. They might also have good aesthetic appeal. A patina is a layer of several chemical substances that form on the surface of metal after exposure to atmospheric elements ( oxygen, rain, acid rain, carbon dioxide, and sulfur - containing compounds ). These substances include oxides, carbonates, sulphides, and sulphates. Weathering rust on steel is frequently misunderstood as patina in everyday speech.

 

Patina also describes cumulative surface texture and colour changes that happen over time as a result of regular usage of an item, like a coin or a piece of furniture. The term "patina" is also used by archaeologists to describe the corticated coating that forms over time on ancient stone monuments and flint tools as a result of a variety of complex circumstances. This has caused stone tool experts to favour the term cortification over patination as a better way to characterise the process in recent years. 

 

The term patina is used in geology and geomorphology to describe a discoloured film or thin outer layer that is produced on or inside the surface of a rock or other material as a result of the development of a weathering rind inside the rock's surface, the formation of desert varnish on the surface of a rock, or a combination of the two. It also describes the growth that results from weathering a case-hardened layer, known by geologists as cortex, within the surface of a flint nodule or chert nodule. 

Verdigris, a term used to describe the natural green patina that develops on copper and bronze, is often composed of various combinations of copper chlorides, sulphides, sulphates, and carbonates, depending on external factors such sulfur - containing acid rain. The patina is produced in rural areas with pure air by the slow chemical reaction of copper with carbon dioxide and water, which results in a simple copper carbonate.

 

The final patina is mostly made of sulphide or sulphate compounds in industrial and urban air settings with sulphurous acid rain from coal-fired power plants or industrial activities. Under normal weathering, a patina layer takes many years to develop. A building's patina layers will develop more quickly in damp coastal or marine surroundings than in dry inland ones. When compared to "pure" copper cladding, facade cladding made of copper alloys, such as brass or bronze, will weather differently.

With copper - alloy cladding, even a permanent gold tint is conceivable, as seen in Colston Hall in Bristol or the Novotel at Paddington Central in London. After the original finish has worn off, steel parts of vintage and well - used weapons frequently develop a film of rust on the action, barrel, or other steel elements. This is what everyone refers to as patina, but gunsmith Mark Novak refers to it as a wonderful thick layer of rust. For a firearm to be preserved and to stop future deterioration, such rust must frequently be removed. 

 

Chemicals like ammonium sulphide ( blue - black ), liver of sulphur ( brown - black ), cupric nitrate ( blue - green ), and ferric nitrate ( yellow - brown ) are included in the fundamental colour palette for patinas on copper alloys. Patination for artworks is frequently expedited on purpose by heating chemicals. The palette includes deep blues, greens, whites, reds, and a variety of blacks, in addition to matte sandstone yellow. Some patina colours are created by combining pigments applied to chemicals with colours created by the reaction with the metal surface.

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Sometimes waxing, oiling, or applying different kinds of lacquers or clear coatings improves the surface. Simply put, the French sculptor Auguste Rodin used to tell his studio helpers to pee over bronzes that were kept in the garden. Applying vinegar ( acetic acid ) will cause copper to develop a patina. This patina is water - soluble and won't hold up as long on a building's exterior as a "true" patina would. Typically, it serves as a pigment. Slip rings and commutators both have patina.

Because this kind of patina is created by corrosion, potential airborne contaminants, residue from carbon brush wear, and moisture, it requires particular circumstances in order to function well. Woks and other metal baking ware can also develop patinas. Seasoning is the practise of putting patinas to cookware. A wok's patina is a thick, polymerized layer of oils that have been applied to it to keep food from adhering. A wok's patina may be damaged by scrubbing or soap use, which may also encourage rust. 

Collectors of knives with carbon steel blades will occasionally apply a patina to the blade to help protect it and give it a more distinctive appearance. You can accomplish this with a variety of chemicals and materials, including mustard, muriatic acid, and apple cider vinegar. Another method is to insert the blade into any acidic fruit or vegetable, such as an orange or an apple. There are different opinions on the worth of patination and its replacement, or repatination, in the case of antiques. 

A piece's appearance and personality should be preserved because its removal or decrease may significantly lower their worth. Repatination could be advised if the patination has flaked off. Reyne Haines, an appraiser, points out that a metal piece that has been repatinated will be valued less than a piece that still has its original finish, but more than one that has significant patina flaws. 

Craquelure - Brief Introduction :

A fine pattern of thick cracking that forms on the surface of materials is called a craquelure. It may be brought on by ageing, drying, patterning done on purpose, or a mix of all three. The phrase is most frequently used to describe tempera or oil paintings, though it can also appear in antique ivory sculptures or painted miniatures mounted on ivory. Authenticating artwork has recently been suggested using craquelure analysis. "Crackle" is the term used in ceramics to describe the craquelure that occurs in ceramic glazes, where it is frequently a desirable appearance. 

It is a specific feature of Chinese Ge pottery. This is typically distinguished from crazing, a glaze firing flaw or an ageing or damage - related phenomenon. The type of drying oil or paint media employed and the presence of paint additives, such as organic solvents, surfactants, and plasticizers, determine the complexity and mechanical properties of painting systems. Understanding the process by which paint craquelures form and the morphology of the ensuing cracks reveals information about the tools and supplies employed by the artists. 

Identification of the morphology of craquelure can be accomplished. The following list of seven important characteristics is used to characterise the morphology of craquelure. Local and global fracture direction, association with weave or grain direction of support, crack shape, crack spacing, thickness, crack termination, and network organisation are all factors to consider. The identification of "styles" of craquelure, which connect fracture patterns to different historical schools of painting, has been done using these seven criteria.

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This establishes a connection between the fracture patterns and certain places, times, and painting techniques. Italian panel paintings from the 1300s to 1500s: unique secondary networks of thin cracks and perpendicular to wood grain fissures with jagged edges. Flemish paintings on panel ( c. 1400 – 1600 ) : smooth, straight segments of cracks with an orientation parallel to the wood grain, as well as small, square islands, are noticed. Dutch canvas paintings from the 1600s : the principal axis of the picture is cracked perpendicularly, with jagged lines and square joints. 

The cracks typically follow the weave and weft of the canvas support. French paintings on canvas from the 1700s : random distributions of non-directional cracks with smooth, curving lines. Freshly formed, stiffer sublayers tended to delocalize strain from the support and eliminate the relationship between crack direction and canvas weave. Because of the wood, animal glue, gesso, paint, binder, and other materials employed, paintings do not have flat surfaces; rather, they have an uneven texture.

Surface textures might differ depending on the place they were generated in much as the components used to make paintings differ by geography. Italian paintings' thin ground surfaces resulted in their paintings' slim, thin cracks, whilst French paintings' much broader ground surfaces resulted in their paintings' extremely swirly cracks. The pictorial layer tends to contract when the volatile solvents evaporate during drying.

 

Large tensile strains in the top paint layer are induced by non - uniform shrinkage over the painting surface as a result of different paint species' unequal adherence to the sublayer. The amount of adhesion to the sublayer, paint film thickness, composition, and the mechanical characteristics of the sublayer all have a significant role in crack formation during drying. Within days of painting, craquelure, which was created during the drying process, manifests as little cracks that are restricted to the uppermost paint layers.

 

Capillary forces, which limit drying stresses to the painting's free surface, are the cause of this localisation. Due to the fine dispersion of pigment particles within the evaporating volatile liquids, drying cracks are typically isotropic. An unfavourable rise in surface energy as the fracture lengthens inhibits crack propagation at a critical strain, while an increase in the elastic energy of the material nearby encourages it. Fracture mechanics allows for a precise evaluation of the circumstances surrounding the propagation of a drying crack. 

 

The degree to which the top paint coat adheres to the sublayer greatly affects the width of the crack. The graphic layer can slip over the sublayer and produce spectacular, wide cracks as a result of uneven tensile strains during solvent evaporation if there is inadequate adhesion between these layers. As a result, the breadth of drying cracks varies greatly in contrast to ageing cracks. If the painter applies too much oil or another fatty component to the sublayer material, poor adherence may result. 

 

The pictorial layer will not crack if the film thickness is below a certain value. Thin coatings prevent cracks from spreading because the reduction in elastic energy that occurs when a crack lengthens is insufficient to counteract the corresponding rise in surface energy. Networks of cracks can be seen in films that are thicker than this crucial value.

 

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Thick films exhibit more complete networks because the degree of connectivity between nucleation sites grows with film thickness, whereas thicknesses close to the critical value are characterised by isolated star - shaped fracture junctions. The support, or sublayer,'s degree of stiffness has a significant impact on the crack spacing during drying. The strain in the visual layer is not caused by an infinitely rigid sublayer. During the drying process, changes in the relative humidity have an impact on a painting's support and ground layer, which encourages crack growth.

 

Paintings made of hygroscopic materials, such as gesso ground layers or wood supports, are particularly sensitive to changes in relative humidity. At relative humidities ( RH ) below 75%, gesso is brittle; as RH rises, gesso loses stiffness and changes to a ductile condition. Variations in RH result in highly uneven tensile strains across the surface of the gesso, which fractures as the material contracts during drying. During the drying process of the gesso, craquelure is quite obvious. 

 

Similar to this, wood supports react strongly to variations in RH. When exposed to moisture, wood grains frequently expand perpendicular to the grain axis. When a wet ground layer is put to a wood support's surface, the wood in contact with the layer swells while the panel's back stays the same. This may be a factor in cupping, a condition when a panel of wood begins to bow transverse to the grain of the wood. As the ground layer dries, the additional forces on the convex side of the cupped wood panel induce further fracture. 

 

Aged cracks differ from their drying counterparts in that they are more pronounced, deeper, and form throughout the course of the painting's lifetime. Because it is dependent on the precise environmental changes and chemical ageing processes the paint is subjected to, this sort of craquelure is far more challenging to forecast and model. 

 

Direct impacts, differences in temperature and relative humidity, support deformation, restoration procedures such as canvas reinforcing and stretching, and oxidation reactions that render the surface chalky or more brittle are important factors that contribute to ageing craquelure. The pictorial layer generally gets brittler with age, making it less able to withstand the forces brought on by the environment. There are many ways to make induced craquelure, and forgers of Old Master paintings, which naturally have some, frequently use it in their works.

 

Eric Hebborn, an art forger, created a method, and Tony Tetro found a way to use formaldehyde and a unique baking procedure. Although there are several techniques, like baking or completing a painting, through which this is tried, craquelure is virtually impossible to perfectly recreate artificially in a particular pattern. However, although genuine craquelure includes cracks with varied patterns, these techniques typically produce cracks that are homogeneous in appearance. Using zinc white paints as the underlayer in pentimento techniques frequently results in craquelure. 

 

Because the smaller zinc oxide particles do not attach to the sublayer, they are better at causing craquelure than bigger particles. Additionally, craquelure is more easily produced by zinc white paints employing linoleic acid-based binders than by paints using other binders. Craquelure, which affects the glaze of ceramics, can form over time but can also be intentionally used as a decorative element. This practise has a long history, particularly in Chinese and Korean pottery.

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The term "crackle" typically refers to these intentional glazing characteristics, with names like "crackle glaze" or "crackle porcelain" being used frequently. Although sometimes experts have trouble determining if lesser effects are intended or not, it is commonly distinguished from crazing, which is incidental craquelure coming from a glaze flaw. Some might have only emerged with time. Guan pottery and Ge ware, two prominent Chinese ceramics from the Song and Yuan eras, feature purposeful crackle glazes. 

In Ru ware, the gentler crackle may be accidental, though the majority of pieces do. "Gold thread and iron wire" double crackle, a form of double crackle found in Ge ware, is characterised by two patterns: one with a coarser network and the other with a wide and big crackle. The appearance of each set of cracks has been enhanced by the application of a tinted stain in a variety of colours. There are several glazing layers, and the broader crackling appears first before the finer one does so inside of those regions.

 

The quick cooling and possibly low silica content in the glaze are the main causes of the crackling, which may not occur right away after fire. The craquelure technique has been employed by the modern decor industry to produce a variety of items made of materials like glass, ceramics, and iron. The usage of marketing kits that react with the colours found in ornamental acrylic colours allowed for this. The percentage of reagent and period of application both affect how much craquelure is created.

 

Glitter powder, which is often available in copper, bronze, and gold, is used to draw attention to the fractures. When several brands of pre-made goods are combined to resemble craquelure, the resulting fractures come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Digital photographs can have craquelure by using software programmes. There are techniques for detecting art forgeries that make use of craquelure. Historical craquelure patterns are hard to replicate, making them an effective tool for verifying the authenticity of works of art.

 

MudCracks - A Review : 

With great accuracy, contemporary detection approaches use feature extraction at fracture junctions and picture matching to determine the authenticity of artwork. Mudcracks are sedimentary structures that develop as muddy material dries and shrinks. They are also known as mud cracks, desiccation cracks, or cracked mud. As a result of a decrease in water content, crack formation also happens in soils that contain clay. Wet, muddy sediment dries up and contracts, which is how naturally occurring mudcracks begin.

 

The substance below maintains its size as the upper layer shrinks, causing a strain to form. Channel fractures begin to form in the dried-up surface when the tension gets too great, relieving the pressure. Individual fissures grow and link, creating a polygonal, interconnected network of shapes known as "tesselations." The polygon begins to curl upward if the strain is allowed to increase. Geologists can utilise this property to determine a rock's initial orientation. Sediment may later cover cracks, creating casts over the base. 

 

Instead of being exposed to the air and drying out, syneresis cracks are structurally comparable features that develop from the underwater shrinkage of murky silt brought on by variations in salinity or chemical conditions. Due to their propensity to be discontinuous, sinuous, and trilete or spindle - shaped, syneresis cracks can be distinguished from mudcracks. When viewed from above, mudcracks often have a polygonal shape and a v-shaped cross section. The crack tapers downward and the "v" opens near the top of the bed.

 

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Mudcracks can be categorised according to their completeness, orientation, shape, and kind of infill, according to Allen's ( 1982 ) proposal. A network of connected tessellating mudcracks is formed. Cracks frequently connect when smaller, discrete cracks come together to form a bigger, continuous crack. Mudcracks that are not complete form in the same region as other cracks while not being related to them. It is possible for orthogonal junctions to be random or to have a preferred orientation.

 

Oriented orthogonal cracks are typically complete, connect to one another, and form irregular polygonal forms, frequently in rows. Random orthogonal cracks lack connections and general shapes because the cracks are incomplete and unoriented. They are not entirely geometric, while not making general shapes. Mudcracks that are not orthogonal have a geometric pattern. They develop as a single three - pointed star shape made up of three cracks in unfinished non - orthogonal fissures.

 

Although more than three cracks could also emerge, three are typically regarded as the minimum. They create a very geometric pattern when non-orthogonal cracks are fully developed. Small polygonal shaped tiles in a repeated pattern are what the pattern resembles. During one of the last phases of desiccation, mud curls develop. On the exposed top layer of very lightly bedded mud rocks, mud curls are frequently seen. When mud curls develop, the water present in the sediment starts to evaporate, which separates the layered layers.

 

The top layer can compress and create curls while desiccation takes place since it is significantly weaker than numerous levels. Mud curls may be maintained as mud - chip rip - up clasts if carried by later currents. Mudcracks develop naturally in silt that has previously been saturated with water. Mudcracks are found in places like dried ponds, floodplain muds, and abandoned river channels. Mudcracks may also indicate a formation environment that was primarily sunny or shaded.

 

Widely scattered, irregular mudcracks are the result of rapid drying in bright surroundings, but closer-spaced, more regular mudcracks show that they formed in a shady location. Similar characteristics can also be found in igneous dykes and sills, columnar basalt flows, and frozen ground. Ceramic glazes, paint films, and improperly constructed concrete are examples of man - made materials that can develop polygonal crack networks that resemble mudcracks.

 

Utilising technical thin films created using micro- and nano technologies, mudcrack patterning at finer sizes can also be detected and analysed. Mudcracks can be preserved as castings on the underside of an overlying layer or as v - shaped fissures on the top of a bed of muddy silt. The cracks still have the same appearance as when they were first formed when they are preserved on top of a bed. The fractures are filled in with more recent, atop-lying silt when they are preserved on the base of the bedrock.

 

The part that sticks out most in most bottom - of - bed instances are the cracks. When newly created, fully dried mudcracks are covered in fresh, wet sediment and buried, bottom - of - bed preservation takes place. The newly moist sediment is further forced into the fissures where it dries and hardens by burial and pressure. Later, erosion exposes the mud - cracked rock.

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In these situations, the older material that fills the openings will degrade more quickly than the initial mud cracks. Geologists utilise this kind of mudcrack to identify the vertical orientation of rock samples that have undergone folding or faulting. 

Crazing - An Explanation : 

Crazing is a phenomena that causes a network of tiny cracks to appear on a material's surface, such as in a glaze layer. In some thermoplastic glassy materials, crazing frequently occurs before fracture. The plane of the crazing correlates to the direction of tension because it only occurs under tensile stress. Because the crazing region has a different refractive index from the surrounding material, the effect may be easily distinguished from other types of tiny cracking.

 

Interpenetrating microvoids and tiny fibrils form as a result of crazing, which takes place in areas of high hydrostatic stress or intense localised yielding. The microvoids expand and coalesce as a result of the bridges breaking if a sufficient tensile load is applied; as the microvoids coalesce, cracks start to form. Because the substance is held together by a mixture of stronger covalent connections and weaker Van der Waals forces, crazing happens in polymers. The Van der Waals force is overcome by sufficient local tension, allowing for a small gap.

 

Covalent bonds that hold the backbone chain together prevent the gap from getting any wider once the slack has been removed. The holes in a frenzy are extremely small. Light reflects off the surfaces of the gaps, making crazes visible. Fine filaments known as fibrils, which are molecules of the stretched backbone chain, fill the gaps. A light microscope cannot see the fibrils since they are only a few nanometers in diameter, but an electron microscope can make them out. 

 

The profile of a crazing's thickness is similar to that of a sewing needle: the crazing's very tip could be as thin as several atoms. It tends to gradually thicken as you get further away from the tip, with the rate of increase slowing down as you get farther away. As a result, the distance from the tip at which crazing develops is crucial. Between 2° and 10° is the range of the crazing's opening angle. The microstructure of the crazing can be reduced down to 20 or less, making it only visible via electron microscopy.

 

The boundary between the crazing and surrounding bulk polymer is exceedingly crisp. In contrast to a crack, a craze can continue to support a weight while being imperceptible from the outside. Additionally, the process of craze formation before cracking absorbs fracture energy and significantly raises a polymer's fracture toughness. It has been discovered that the initial energy absorption per square metre in a craze region can be up to several hundred times greater than that of the uncrazed region, but it gradually declines and levels off.

 

Extremely stressed areas with blemishes, defects, stress concentrations, and molecular inhomogeneities are where crazes develop. Generally, crazes spread perpendicular to the stress being applied. Most amorphous, brittle polymers, including polystyrene ( PS ), acrylic ( PMMA ), and polycarbonate, are susceptible to crazing, which is characterised by a whitening of the affected area. Light dispersion from the crazes is what gives the object its white tone. 

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The process that results in crazing is reversible. As soon as compressive stress or a temperature that is greater than the temperature at which glass transforms is applied, the crazing may vanish and the materials will resume their optically homogenous state. When thermoplastic materials are deformed, shear banding a narrow region with a high level of shearing strain from local strain softening is frequently observed. Crazing and shear banding differ significantly in that shear banding does not occur with an increase in volume but crazing does.

 

As a result of the volume contracting instead of expanding during compression, many of these brittle, amorphous polymers will shear band rather than craze. Additionally, "necking," or the focus of force on one area of a material, is often not seen when crazing occurs. Instead, uniform crazing will take place all over the material. Thermoplastic polymers are frequently strengthened with rubber particles. Stress concentrators are particles that have higher compliance and are, as a result, softer than the surrounding matrix.

 

These areas of intense tension start crazes, which spread in the direction opposite to the force being applied. This explains a phenomena known as "multiple crazing" that, in the case of HIPS, provides flexibility to otherwise brittle polymer matrices. After adjustment, there will be a significant improvement in the capacity to absorb energy. Even brittle - ductile transition is possible for some brittle plastic materials. Previously, it was thought that the rubber particles were the main cause of the enhanced energy absorption. 

 

It was suggested that rubber particles might congregate at crack tips under tension and prevent crack propagation, or that rubber particle contraction caused a decrease in the matrix's glass transition temperature. However, studies revealed that only 10% of the total energy was absorbed by the rubber particles, and that the rubber - caused drop in glass transformation temperature was only about 10 K, which was insufficient for the matrix to yield at room temperature. 

 

When the stress is less than the fracture strength, Schmitt and Bucknall discovered the existence of stress whitening and shear yielding, which led to the development of the rubber toughening process. They suggested that the rubber particles acted as the point of concentration for stress, which started the matrix material's metamorphosis from brittle to ductile and yielded. To be more specific, yielding manifests as crazing or shear band, which can use up a significant amount of the deformation energy. 

 

Glassy polymers are susceptible to crazing when exposed to environmental factors. It is problematic since it occurs at considerably lower stress conditions and occasionally after a long delay, making it difficult to identify and prevent. PMMA containers, for instance, are quite resistant to humidity and temperature in everyday usage without any obvious flaws. When they are wet with gin after being machine washed and left in the air for one or two days, they may shudder suddenly. 

 

Although there is little tension placed on the containers during the procedure, crazing is nevertheless there. There are various theories that have attempted to explain the environmental factors that contribute to the creation of crazing, but surface energy reduction and plasticization are among the most well-established and commonly accepted. Many techniques, including surface coating and stress reduction, are used to prevent environmental crazing and cracking.

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However, because of the complicity of environmental impacts, particularly those in organic environments, it is difficult to come up with a universal fix and entirely eliminate the effect. When proper concrete practises are not followed, crazing can also be noticed on single - ply roofing membranes, joint sealant, and concrete itself. A flaw in glazed pottery's glaze is crazing. It is characterised by cracks that pierce the glaze in the form of a spider web design and is brought on by tensile tensions that are too strong for the glaze to handle.

 

In ceramics, the distinction between "crackle"—when the same occurrence is intentionally manufactured and frequently dramatically accentuated—and "crazing," which occurs accidentally, is frequently made. The unpredictable effects of crackling were particularly beloved by the Chinese, and whereas in Ru ware it appears to have been a quality that was generally tolerated but not sought after, in Guan china a strong crackle was a desired effect. Odontology also uses the term "crazing" to describe tiny fissures in tooth enamel. 

 

Crazy's English root meaning, "to shatter, crush, or break," first appeared in the 1300s. Pottery crazing is where the metaphorical senses we use now first arose. Crazy first appeared as "diseased or sickly" around 1570, and "of unsound mind" around 1610. According to the context, the term may or may not include ions that meet this requirement. A molecule is a collection of two or more atoms held together by the attractive forces known as chemical bonds.

 

Molecules - A Deep Dive : 

When speaking of polyatomic ions, the distinction between them and ions is frequently ignored in the fields of quantum physics, organic chemistry, and biochemistry. A molecule can be heteronuclear, which is a chemical compound made up of more than one element, such as water ( two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom; H2O ), or homonuclear, which is a molecule made up of atoms of one chemical element, such as the two atoms in the oxygen molecule ( O2 ).

The term "molecule" is frequently used to refer to any gaseous particle, regardless of its composition, in the kinetic theory of gases. Since the noble gases are single atoms, the requirement that a molecule comprise two or more atoms is relaxed. Commonly, single molecules do not include atoms and complexes joined by non - covalent interactions like hydrogen bonds or ionic bonds. Although discussions of concepts like molecules date back to antiquity, contemporary research into the nature of molecules and their links only started in the 17th century.

The study of molecules is now referred to as molecular physics or molecular chemistry. It has been developed over time by scientists including Robert Boyle, Amedeo Avogadro, Jean Perrin, and Linus Pauling. As our understanding of molecular structure has grown, so has the definition of a molecule. Molecules are the smallest particles of pure chemical substances that nevertheless retain their composition and chemical properties, according to earlier definitions that were less accurate.

 

Many everyday objects, such as rocks, salts, and metals, are built of massive crystalline networks of chemically connected atoms or ions rather than discrete molecules, which causes this definition to frequently fail. The prescientific ancient Greek philosophers Leucippus and Democritus, who maintained that the cosmos is made up entirely of atoms and voids, are the originators of the current notion of molecules. Approximately 450 BC, Empedocles proposed the existence of four basic elements, viz., fire, earth, air, and water.

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As well as, "forces" of attraction and repulsion that allowed the elements to coexist. It was believed that the incorruptible quintessence aether, a fifth element, was the essential component of the heavenly bodies. Aristotle adopted the philosophy of Leucippus and Empedocles, along with the aether, and transmitted it to Europe during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. 

 

However, in a more concrete sense, Robert Boyle's 1661 hypothesis that matter is made up of clusters of particles and that chemical change results from the rearrangement of the clusters, which was published in his renowned work The Sceptical Chymist, is where the idea of aggregates or units of bonded atoms, i.e. "molecules," originates. Boyle asserted that "corpuscles," which come in a variety of shapes and sizes and are capable of forming groups, are the building blocks of matter.

 

William Higgins' thoughts on what he referred to as combinations of "ultimate" particles, which prefigured the idea of valency bonds, were published in 1789. According to Higgins, the force would be distributed appropriately if, for instance, the force between the ultimate particles of oxygen and nitrogen was 6, and similarly for the other combinations of ultimate particles. The phrase "molecule" was coined by Amedeo Avogadro.

 

According to Partington's A Short History of Chemistry, the smallest particles of gases are not always simple atoms; rather, they are composed of a certain number of these atoms bound together by attraction to form a single molecule. This is what he basically states in his 1811 paper "Essay on Determining the Relative Masses of the Elementary Molecules of Bodies". In accordance with these ideas, Marc Antoine Auguste Gaudin, a French chemist, in 1833 presented a clear explanation of Avogadro's hypothesis.

 

It was regarding atomic weights, by using "volume diagrams," which clearly show both correct and semi-correct molecular formulas, such as H2O, and semi - correct molecular geometries, such as a linear water molecule. Linus Pauling, an unidentified American undergraduate chemical engineer, was studying the Dalton hook - and - eye bonding method in 1917, which at the time was the standard way to describe bonds between atoms. Pauling, however, wasn't happy with this approach and searched for an alternative in the recently developed science of quantum physics.

 

The existence of molecules was definitively shown by French physicist Jean Perrin, who won the Nobel Prize in physics in 1926 for his work. He achieved this by employing three separate techniques to calculate the Avogadro constant, all of which used liquid phase systems. He began by creating an emulsion that resembled gamboge soap, followed by experiments on Brownian motion, and finally, he verified Einstein's theory of particle rotation in the liquid phase. 

 

The exchange forces, saturable, nondynamic forces of attraction and repulsion, of the hydrogen molecule were addressed in 1927 by the physicists Fritz London and Walter Heitler. Their joint paper's handling of the valence bond in this topic was significant since it subsumed chemistry under quantum mechanics. Pauling, who had recently gotten his PhD and had travelled to Heitler and London on a Guggenheim Fellowship while based in Zürich, was influenced by their work. 

 

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Pauling published his groundbreaking article "The Nature of the Chemical Bond" in 1931, building on the theories found in Lewis' well-known article and the work of Heitler and London. In this article, Pauling utilised quantum mechanics to calculate properties and structures of molecules, such as angles between bonds and rotation about bonds. Pauling built his hybridization theory on these ideas to explain bonds in compounds like CH4, which has four sp3 hybridised orbitals that overlap with hydrogen's 1s orbital to form four sigma bonds.

 

A molecular structure results from the identical length and strength of the four bonds. Depending on whether chemistry or physics are the main topics, the study of molecules is referred to as molecular chemistry or molecular physics. While molecular physics is concerned with the principles guiding the structure and functions of molecules, molecular chemistry deals with the laws governing the interactions between molecules that cause chemical bonds to form and break. However, in actuality, this distinction is ambiguous.

 

A molecule is a stable system ( bound state ) made up of two or more atoms in the field of molecular sciences. Sometimes it helps to think of polyatomic ions as electrically charged molecules. The phrase "unstable molecule" refers to highly reactive species, which include fleeting collections ( resonances ) of electrons and nuclei like radicals, molecular ions, Rydberg molecules, transition states, van der Waals complexes, or groups of colliding atoms like Bose-Einstein condensate. 

 

There are lots of molecules in matter. Most of the oceans and atmosphere are also made up of them. The majority of organic compounds are molecules. Molecules such as proteins, the amino acids that make them up, nucleic acids ( DNA and RNA ), sugars, carbohydrates, lipids, and vitamins are examples of the constituents of life. The nutrition minerals, such as iron sulphate, are often ionic compounds rather than molecules. On Earth, however, the vast majority of known solids are composed entirely or mostly of molecules - free crystals or ionic compounds.

 

All the minerals that make up the Earth's composition, as well as sand, clay, pebbles, rocks, boulders, bedrock, the molten interior, and the Earth's core, are among them. All of these are composed of several chemical linkages but lack recognisable molecules. Although salts and covalent crystals are frequently made of repeating unit cells that stretch either in a plane, as in graphene, or three dimensions, as in diamond, quartz, and sodium chloride, neither of them can be described as conventional molecules.

 

The majority of metals, which are in condensed phases with metallic bonding, follow the same pattern of repetitive unit-cellular structure. As a result, molecules do not make up solid metals. Glasses are solids that have vitreous disorganised atoms holding them together with chemical bonds rather than any discernible molecules or the regular unit - cellular structure that distinguishes salts, covalent crystals, and metals. Covalent bonding typically holds molecules together.

 

Numerous non - metallic elements do not exist in the environment as free atoms, but rather as molecules, either as homonuclear molecules or in compounds. Take hydrogen, for instance. Some claim that a metallic crystal can be thought of as a single massive molecule held together by metallic bonds, but others point out that metals behave very differently from molecules. A chemical bond known as a covalent bond entails the exchange of electron pairs between atoms.

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When atoms share electrons, the permanent equilibrium of attractive and repulsive forces between them is referred to as covalent bonding. These electron pairs are known as shared pairs or bonding pairs. The main interaction in ionic compounds is ionic bonding, a form of chemical bond involving the electrostatic attraction between ions with opposing charges. Atoms that have gained or lost one or more electrons are referred to as anions while atoms that have gained or lost one or more electrons are referred to as cations.

 

In contrast to covalence, this transfer of electrons is referred to as electrovalence. The cation and anion are nonmetal atoms in the most basic scenario, however these ions can also be more complex, such as molecular ions like NH4+ or SO42. Ionic bonding typically results in solids (or occasionally liquids) without distinct molecules at normal temperatures and pressures, but vaporisation or sublimation of such materials does result in distinct molecules where electrons are still transferred fully enough for the bonds to be considered ionic rather than covalent. 

 

The majority of molecules are much too small to be seen with the human eye, although certain polymer molecules, particularly biopolymers like DNA, can grow to macroscopic quantities. A few angstroms to several dozen angstroms, or around one billionth of a metre, is the size range of molecules that are frequently utilised as the building blocks for organic synthesis. As mentioned above, single molecules cannot typically be seen with the naked eye, although small molecules and even the silhouettes of individual atoms can occasionally be traced using an atomic force microscope. 

 

Supermolecules or macromolecules are some of the biggest molecules. The diatomic hydrogen molecule ( H2 ), with a bond length of 0.74, is the smallest known molecule. The size a molecule appears to be in solution is called the effective molecular radius. Examples can be found in the table of perm selectivity for various compounds. A molecule's chemical formula consists of one line of chemical element symbols, numbers, and occasionally additional symbols like brackets, dashes, brackets, plus (+) and minus (-) signs.

 

These are restricted to a single typographic line of symbols, which may also contain superscripts and subscripts. An extremely basic kind of chemical formula is the empirical formula for a substance. It is made up of the simplest integer ratio of the constituent chemical elements. For instance, ethanol ( ethyl alcohol ) is always composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 2 : 6 : 1 ratio, while water is always formed of atoms of hydrogen and oxygen in a 2:1 ratio. However, this does not specifically identify the type of molecule; for instance, ethanol and dimethyl ether have the same ratios.

 

Isomers are molecules with the same atoms arranged in several ways. The empirical formula for carbohydrates, for instance, is the same ( carbon : hydrogen : oxygen = 1 : 2 : 1 ) but the overall number of atoms in the molecule varies. The molecular formula identifies various molecules by revealing the precise amount of atoms that make up each one. Although they are separate molecules, different isomers can share the same atomic structure. The empirical formula and the molecular formula are frequently identical, but not always.

 

Acetylene, for instance, has the chemical formula C2H2, yet CH is the simplest integer ratio of the elements. The chemical formula can be used to compute the molecular mass, which is expressed in traditional atomic mass units as 1 / 12 of the mass of a neutral carbon - 12 ( 12C isotope ) atom. The phrase "formula unit" is used in stoichiometric calculations for network solids.

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A straightforward molecular formula or even a semi - structural chemical formula might not be sufficient to accurately describe a molecule with a complex three - dimensional structure, particularly one with atoms bound to four separate substituents. In this situation, a structural formula, a graphical sort of formula, might be required. A one - dimensional chemical name can be used to describe structural formulations, however this involves many phrases and terms that are not included in chemical formulas. 

 

Molecules continuously oscillate through vibrational and rotational motions about set equilibrium geometries, or bond lengths and angles. The molecules that make up a pure substance all have the same typical geometrical structure. A molecule's qualities, especially its reactivity, are largely determined by its chemical formula and structural makeup. Although they have the same chemical formula, isomers typically have vastly distinct properties due to their unique structures.

 

One sort of isomer, called a stereoisomer, can have highly identical physical and chemical characteristics and yet differing biological actions. The subject of molecular spectroscopy is the response ( spectrum ) of molecules to known - energy ( or known - frequency, according to the Planck relation ) probing signals. By monitoring the molecule's energy exchange through absorbance or emission, one can determine the quantized energy levels of a given molecule.

 

Generally speaking, diffraction investigations involving high energy X - rays, neutrons, or electrons interacting with a regular arrangement of molecules ( such as in a crystal ) are not considered to be part of the scope of spectroscopy. In order to detect molecules in space, microwave spectroscopy can be used to observe changes in the rotation of molecules. The vibration of molecules, including their stretching, bending, and twisting motions, is measured using infrared spectroscopy.

 

It's frequently used to describe the many types of bonds or functional groups that make up molecules. Colour is produced by variations in electron configurations, which give rise to absorption or emission lines in ultraviolet, visible, or near - infrared light. Nuclear resonance spectroscopy can be used to characterise the numbers of atoms in various places in a molecule by measuring the surroundings of certain nuclei in the molecule. 

 

The knowledge of the chemical bond depends on the study of molecules by molecular physics and theoretical chemistry, which is largely based on quantum mechanics. The hydrogen molecule - ion, H2+, is the simplest type of molecule, and the one - electron link is the most basic type of chemical connection. Two positively charged protons and one negatively charged electron make up H2+, which makes it easier to solve the Schrödinger equation for the system because there is no electron - electron attraction.

 

One of the key components of computational chemistry is the ability to estimate solutions for more complex compounds thanks to the development of fast digital computers. According to IUPAC, a molecule "must correspond to a depression on the potential energy surface that is deep enough to confine at least one vibrational state" in order to be deemed to be an arrangement of atoms that is sufficiently stable to be referred to as a molecule. Only the intensity of the interaction matters for this definition, not the type of interaction between the atoms.

 

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In fact, it includes weakly bound species that aren't typically thought of as molecules, like the helium dimer He2, which has just one vibrationally bonded state and is so loosely bound that it is most likely to be found at very low temperatures. An operational definition of a molecule is whether or not a configuration of atoms is sufficiently stable to be referred to be one. Therefore, from a philosophical perspective, a molecule is not a fundamental thing, in contrast to, say, an elementary particle. 

 

Rather, the idea of a molecule is the chemist's way of expressing relevant information about the potencies of atomic - scale interactions in the physical world that we experience. 

Atoms - A Broad Discussion : 

A particle called an atom has a nucleus made up of protons and neutrons that is encircled by an electron cloud. The fundamental unit of the chemical elements is the atom, and the protons in an atom serve as a means of differentiating one chemical element from another. Any atom with 11 protons, for instance, is sodium, while any atom with 29 protons is copper. The element's isotope is determined by the number of neutrons in it. Atoms are incredibly tiny, measuring typically 100 picometers across. About a million carbon atoms make up an average human hair.

 

Since this is smaller than the visible light spectrum's smallest wavelength, people cannot view atoms using standard microscopes. Because of quantum phenomena, atoms are so tiny that it is impossible to predict their behaviour with precision using classical physics. The nucleus of an atom contains more than 99.94% of its mass. The electric charges of the protons are positive, those of the electrons are negative, and those of the neutrons are zero. The atom is electrically neutral if the number of protons and electrons is equal.

 

An atom has an overall charge of positive or negative if it contains more electrons than protons. These atoms are known as ions. The electromagnetic force pulls an atom's electrons towards the protons in its atomic nucleus. The nuclear force draws the protons and neutrons in the nucleus together. The electromagnetic force that keeps positively charged protons apart is typically weaker than this force. The electromagnetic force that repels objects can occasionally outweigh the nuclear force. The nucleus breaks in this instance, leaving behind several parts.

 

This type of nuclear decay exists. Atoms can create chemical compounds like molecules or crystals by joining up with one or more other atoms through chemical bonds. The majority of the physical changes seen in nature are caused by atoms' capacity to bind and detach. The science that investigates these changes is chemistry. The fundamental notion that matter is composed of tiny, inseparable particles is an old one that has roots in numerous ancient cultures. Atomos, which meaning "uncuttable" in ancient Greek, is the root of the word atom.

 

Rather than being founded on empirical evidence, this ancient concept was based on philosophical reasoning. These antiquated ideas are not the foundation of modern atomic physics. John Dalton, a scientist who lived in the early 19th century, observed that chemical elements appeared to join with one another in distinct weight units. He chose the term "atom" to describe these units since he believed those to be the basic building blocks of matter. Although it was later found that Dalton's atoms are not truly indivisible, the phrase persisted. 

 

John Dalton, an English chemist, discovered the "law of multiple proportions" in the early 1800s after compiling experimental data obtained by himself and other researchers. He observed that when a certain chemical element is present in chemical compounds, its weight will vary in these compounds by ratios of small whole numbers. As a result of this pattern, Dalton came to the conclusion that each chemical element interacts with other chemical elements through a fundamental unit of weight, which he named "atoms". 

 

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Some compounds, it was found by scientists, have the exact same chemical composition but different properties. For instance, Friedrich Wöhler found in 1827 that silver fulminate and silver cyanate have the same chemical composition of 107 parts silver, 12 parts carbon, 14 parts nitrogen, and 12 parts oxygen ( today known as AgCNO ). Isomerism was first used to characterise the phenomenon in 1830 by Jöns Jacob Berzelius. Louis Pasteur postulated in 1860 that molecules in isomers can share the same composition but have distinct atom configurations. 

 

The idea that the carbon atom forms a tetrahedral link with other atoms was first out by Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff in 1874. From there, he developed an explanation of organic molecule structure that allowed him to forecast the number of isomers a drug may have. Pentane (C5H12) is a good illustration. Pentane has three potential configurations according to van 't Hoff's method of modelling molecules, and researchers later found three compounds with the same chemical make - up as pentane. 

 

British botanist Robert Brown first noticed the erratic motion of dust particles inside pollen grains floating in water in 1827. Albert Einstein proposed a mathematical model in 1905 to explain the Brownian motion, which he theorised was the result of water molecules continuously bouncing the grains around. French physicist Jean Perrin utilised Einstein's equation to determine the number of atoms in a mole and the size of atoms in order to experimentally test this hypothesis in 1908. 

 

Since cathode rays can be deflected by electrical and magnetic forces, J. J. Thomson revealed in 1897 that they are not electromagnetic waves but rather particles. These particles, according to his measurements, are 1,800 times lighter than hydrogen, the lightest atom. Thomson came to the conclusion that these particles, which were subatomic in nature, originated from the atoms inside the cathode. He gave these new particles the name corpuscles, but electrons eventually replaced that term.

 

Thomson also demonstrated that the particles emitted by photoelectric and radioactive materials were identical to electrons. The fact that electrons are the particles that conduct electric currents in metal wires was immediately established. Atoms are not indivisible, as Dalton believed, according to Thomson, who came to the conclusion that these electrons originated from the same atoms of the cathode in his instruments. According to J. J. Thomson, the positively charged electrons were dispersed throughout the atom's whole volume in a sea of positively charged ions.

 

The plum pudding model is another name for this one. After experiencing difficulties while attempting to construct an instrument to measure the charge - to - mass ratio of alpha particles ( these are positively - charged particles emitted by some radioactive substances such as radium ), Ernest Rutherford and his colleagues Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden began to question the Thomson model. The readings were inaccurate because the air in the detecting chamber was scattering the alpha particles. 

Similar issues arose during Thomson's cathode ray research, which he overcame by insuring that his equipment was nearly completely vacuumed. Because alpha particles are substantially heavier than electrons, Rutherford did not anticipate encountering the same issue. The electrons should be easily pushed aside by the much heavier alpha particles since they are far heavier than the positive charge in the atom, which is not concentrated enough to form an electric field powerful enough to deflect an alpha particle, according to Thomson's model of the atom.

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However, there was scattering, so Rutherford and his associates chose to carefully examine this scattering. In a series of tests between 1908 and 1913, Rutherford and his associates attacked tiny metal foils with alpha particles. Alpha particles were seen to be deflected at angles greater than 90 degrees. To explain this, Rutherford hypothesised that the positive charge of the atom is concentrated in a tiny nucleus at its centre rather than being dispersed across the atom's bulk as Thomson thought.

Only such a high charge density could generate an electric field powerful enough to deflect the alpha particles as seen. Frederick Soddy, a radiochemist, found that there appeared to be more than one type of atom at each location on the periodic table in 1913 while working with the byproducts of radioactive decay. Despite having varying atomic weights, these atoms shared the same properties.

Margaret Todd came up with the term "isotope" to describe atoms of the same element that have different weights. Through his research on ionised gases, J. J. Thomson developed a method for isotope separation, which ultimately resulted in the identification of stable isotopes.

Bohr's Model - A Look : 

According to a hypothesis put forth by physicist Niels Bohr in 1913, an atom's electrons orbit its nucleus but can only do so in a limited number of orbits, and they can only change orbits by discrete changes in energy that correspond to the absorption or emission of a photon. Given that charges in acceleration, including circular motion, lose kinetic energy that is released as electromagnetic radiation, see synchrotron radiation, this quantization was used to explain why the orbits of the electrons are stable as well as why elements absorb and emit electromagnetic radiation in discrete spectra.

Later that year, Henry Moseley offered more experimental support for Niels Bohr's theory. These findings improved the concept put out by Ernest Rutherford and Antonius van den Broek, which said that the quantity of positive nuclear charges in the atom's nucleus corresponds to its ( atomic ) number in the periodic table. Atomic number was not recognised as a physical and experimental quantity prior to these experiments. The currently accepted atomic model states that it is equal to the nuclear charge of an atom. 

Gilbert Newton Lewis first identified the interactions between the constituent electrons of atoms as the source of chemical bonding in 1916. The American chemist Irving Langmuir proposed that this could be explained if the electrons in an atom were connected or clustered in some way in 1919 because it was recognised that the periodic rule substantially explained how the chemical properties of the elements repeat themselves. A series of electron shells surrounding the nucleus were assumed to be occupied by groups of electrons. 

The first thorough physical representation of the atom was the Bohr model. It predicted the spectral lines of hydrogen and detailed the overall structure of the atom as well as how atoms bind to one another. Although not perfect and quickly replaced by the more precise Schrödinger model, Bohr's model was adequate to dispel any lingering concerns that matter is made up of atoms. The concept of the atom had been a helpful heuristic for chemists, but physicists had scepticism about whether matter actually is made up of atoms.

Werner Heisenberg Model - The Concept :

It is because no complete physical description of the atom had been created. Werner Heisenberg published the first accurate mathematical description of quantum mechanics in 1925 under the name matrix mechanics. Erwin Schrödinger developed the Schrödinger equation, a mathematical model of the atom that described the electrons as three - dimensional waveforms rather than points in space, in 1926 using Louis de Broglie's idea that all particles behave like waves to some extent. 

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The mathematical impossibility of obtaining precise values for a particle's position and momentum at a particular instant in time is a result of using waveforms to represent particles. Werner Heisenberg proposed what is now known as the uncertainty principle in 1927. In this concept, one could only determine a range of likely values for momentum and vice versa for a certain accuracy in measuring a location. Previous models were unable to account for specific structural and spectral patterns of atoms larger than hydrogen, but this model was able to do so.

In order to characterise the atomic orbital regions around the nucleus where a specific electron is most likely to be observed, an alternative to the planetary model of the atom was developed. 

Neutrons and High Energy Physics - Critical Constructs  : 

The mass of atoms may be measured more precisely thanks to the mass spectrometer's development. The gadget employs a magnet to deflect an ion beam's trajectory, and the ratio of an atom's mass to charge controls how much deflection occurs. This device was used by the chemist Francis William Aston to demonstrate that isotopes have various masses. These isotopes' atomic masses varied by integer quantities, according to the so - called whole number rule.

The neutron, an uncharged particle with a mass comparable to the proton, was discovered by physicist James Chadwick in 1932. This discovery provided the explanation for these various isotopes. The concept of isotopes was then presented as being composed of elements with the same number of protons but variable numbers of neutrons. German chemist Otto Hahn, a Rutherford pupil, fired neutrons at uranium atoms in 1938 with the intention of creating transuranium elements. Instead, barium was a result of his chemical investigations.

Hahn's findings were the first experimental nuclear fission, as Lise Meitner and her nephew Otto Frisch confirmed a year later. Hahn was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1944. Hahn made an effort, but Meitner and Frisch's contributions were not acknowledged. Scientists were able to explore the effects of atoms moving at high energy in the 1950s because to the improvement of particle accelerators and particle detectors. It was discovered that protons and neutrons are hadrons, or composites of quarks, which are smaller particles. 

In order to date, the properties of the nucleus have been satisfactorily explained in terms of these subatomic particles and the forces that control their interactions by the standard model of particle physics. Although the term "atom" originally referred to a particle that could not be divided into smaller particles, it is now used to refer to a group of subatomic particles that make up an atom. The electron, proton, and neutron are the building blocks of an atom. The electron has a negative electrical charge and is too small to be measured with current technology. 

It is by far the least substantial of these particles. Prior to the discovery of neutrino mass, it was the lightest particle with a positive measured rest mass. Under normal circumstances, the attraction between the positively charged nucleus's positively and negatively charged electrons binds them to it. An atom becomes positively or negatively charged overall if it has more or less electrons than its atomic number. Such an atom is referred to as an ion. Since the late 19th century, we have known about electrons, mostly because of J.J. Thomson. 

Positively charged protons have a mass 1,836 times greater than that of an electron. The atomic number of an atom is the sum of all of its protons. Ernest Rutherford noted in 1909 that nitrogen emits what looked to be hydrogen nuclei when subjected to an alpha particle bombardment. He recognised the hydrogen nucleus as a separate particle within the atom in 1920 and gave it the name proton. The free mass of a neutron is 1,839 times greater than that of an electron and they have no electrical charge.

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Although neutrons are the heaviest of the three component particles, the nuclear binding energy can diminish their mass. Although the'surface' of protons and neutrons, together referred to as nucleons, is not well defined, they are similar in size. The British physicist James Chadwick made the neutron's discovery in 1932. In the Standard Model of physics, protons and neutrons are composite particles made up of genuinely elementary particles called quarks, whereas electrons are truly elementary particles with no intrinsic structure.

Atoms contain two different types of quarks, each of which has a little electric charge. Two up quarks and one down quark make up protons. One up quark and two down quarks make up neutrons. The two particles' different masses and charges are explained by this disparity. The strong interaction ( also known as the strong force ), which is mediated by gluons, holds the quarks together. The nuclear force, a remnant of the strong force with somewhat modified range - properties, holds the protons and neutrons to one another in the nucleus.

The gluon is an elementary particle that mediates physical forces. It belongs to the family of gauge bosons. Nucleons are the collective name for the bonded protons and neutrons that make up the small atomic nucleus of an atom. This is substantially less than the atom's radius, which is approximately 105 fm. The residual strong force, a short - range attractive potential, holds the nucleons together. This force is substantially stronger than the electrostatic force that prevents positively charged protons from repelling one another at distances lower than 2.5 fm. 

The atomic number, or number of protons in an atom, is the same for all atoms of the same element. The isotope of an element can differ depending on the amount of neutrons in that element. The nuclide is determined by the total amount of protons and neutrons. The stability of the nucleus is determined by the ratio of neutrons to protons, with some isotopes undergoing radioactive decay. Fermions are defined as the proton, electron, and neutron.

The Pauli exclusion principle, which applies to fermions, forbids identical fermions, such as multiple protons, from existing in the same quantum state simultaneously. As a result, each proton in the nucleus must exist in a distinct quantum state from every other proton, and the same holds true for each neutron in the nucleus and each electron in the electron cloud. Through a radioactive decay that brings the number of protons and neutrons closer together, a nucleus with a different number of protons than neutrons may be able to transition to a lower energy state. 

As a result, atoms with equal numbers of protons and neutrons are more resistant to decay. However, as the atomic number increases, an increasing proportion of neutrons are needed to maintain the stability of the nucleus due to the mutual repulsion of the protons. It is possible to change the proportion of protons and neutrons in the atomic nucleus, albeit the strong force may make this need extremely high energy. When several atomic particles combine to form a heavier nucleus, such as when two nuclei collide energetically, this process is known as nuclear fusion.

Protons, for instance, need energies between 3 and 10 keV to break through the coulomb barrier and combine into a single nucleus in the centre of the Sun. The opposing process, known as nuclear fission, causes a nucleus to split into two smaller nuclei, typically by radioactive decay. High energy subatomic or photon bombardment of the nucleus is another way to alter it. The atom transforms into a different chemical element if this changes the quantity of protons in a nucleus.

 

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According to Albert Einstein's mass - energy equivalence formula, e = mc2, where m is the mass loss and c is the speed of light, if the mass of the nucleus after a fusion reaction is less than the sum of the masses of the separate particles, then the difference between these two values can be emitted as a type of usable energy ( such as a gamma ray or the kinetic energy of a beta particle ). The atom transforms into a different chemical element if this changes the quantity of protons in a nucleus. 

 

According to Albert Einstein's mass - energy equivalence formula, e = mc2, where m is the mass loss and c is the speed of light, if the mass of the nucleus after a fusion reaction is less than the sum of the masses of the separate particles, then the difference between these two values can be emitted as a type of usable energy ( such as a gamma ray or the kinetic energy of a beta particle ). The non - recoverable loss of the energy is what keeps the fused particles together in a state that calls for this energy to separate them.

 

This deficit is a component of the binding energy of the new nucleus. In most cases, the fusing of two nuclei that results in bigger nuclei with atomic numbers less than those of iron and nickel, a total nucleon number of roughly 60, occurs as an exothermic process that releases more energy than is necessary to bring the nuclei together. Because of this process of energy release, nuclear fusion in stars is a self-sustaining reaction. The binding energy per nucleon in the nucleus starts to decline for heavier nuclei. 

 

Therefore, fusion events that result in nuclei with atomic weights more than about 60 and atomic numbers greater than about 26 are endothermic reactions. These more powerful nuclei are incapable of undergoing a fusion reaction that would maintain the hydrodynamic balance of a star and produce energy.

Electron Cloud - An Expounding : 

The electromagnetic force pulls the electrons in an atom towards the protons in the nucleus. The electrons are constrained by this force inside an electric potential well surrounding the smaller nucleus, therefore an external energy source is required for the electron to escape. The attractive force between an electron and the nucleus increases with proximity. As a result, electrons trapped close to the potential well's centre need more energy to free themselves than electrons trapped farther apart. 

 

Like other particles, electrons exhibit both wavelike and particle like characteristics. Inside the potential well, there is an area known as the electron cloud, where each electron creates a particular kind of standing wave in three dimensions that is stationary with respect to the nucleus. An atomic orbital, a mathematical function that describes the likelihood that an electron would appear to be at a specific location when its position is measured, defines this behaviour.

 

Around the nucleus, there is only a definite ( or quantized ) collection of these orbitals since all other potential wave patterns quickly decay into a more stable form. Orbitals vary from one another in size, shape, and orientation, and they can have one or many ring or node structures. Each atomic orbital corresponds to a specific electron energy level. A photon with enough energy to propel it into the new quantum state can be absorbed by an electron to change its state to one at a higher energy level.

 

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Similar to how a photon can emit extra energy as a photon, an electron in a higher energy state can drop to a lower energy level spontaneously. Atomic spectral lines are caused by these distinctive energy values, which are determined by the variations in the energies of the quantum states. The electron binding energy is much smaller than the binding energy of nucleons since it is required to remove or add an electron. For instance, splitting a deuterium nucleus only requires 2.23 million eV, whereas stripping a ground - state electron from a hydrogen atom only needs 13.6 eV.

 

If protons and electrons are distributed equally across the atom, the atom is electrically neutral. Ions are defined as atoms with either a surplus or a shortage of electrons. The electrons that are most distant from the nucleus may be shared or transferred to other neighbouring atoms. Atoms can form molecules and other kinds of chemical compounds, such as ionic and covalent network crystals, by this method. Any two atoms that have the same number of protons in their nuclei are said to be members of the same chemical element.

 

Differing isotopes of the same element are atoms that have differing numbers of neutrons but equal quantities of protons. For instance, all hydrogen atoms can only accept one proton, but there are isotopes of the element that can have one, two, or more neutrons. Hydrogen-1 is the isotope that is by far the most prevalent and is also known as protium. From the single proton element hydrogen through the 118 proton element oganesson, the known elements are grouped by their atomic numbers.

 

The radioactivity of element 83 ( bismuth ) is so minute as to be essentially nonexistent, while all isotopes of known elements with atomic numbers greater than 82 are radioactive. The term "stable isotopes" refers to the approximately 339 nuclides that naturally occur on Earth, of which 251 (or around 74%), have not been seen to decay. Only 90 nuclides have been observed to decay, despite the fact that another 161 (making a total of 251) are theoretically capable of doing so.

 

Additionally, they are technically categorised as "stable" 35 more radioactive nuclides have half - lives greater than 100 million years, making them old enough to date back to the Solar System's formation. Primordial nuclides are the 286 nuclides in this group. As daughter products of primordial nuclide decay ( like radium from uranium ) or as byproducts of naturally occurring energetic processes on Earth, such cosmic ray bombardment ( like carbon - 14 ), an additional 53 short-lived nuclides are known to occur. 

 

There is at least one stable isotope for each of the 80 chemical elements. For each of these elements, there are often only a few stable isotopes, with an average of 3.1 stable isotopes per element. Twenty-six "monoisotopic elements" have just one stable isotope, whereas tin has the most stable isotopes ( ten ), which is the most of any element. There are no stable isotopes for elements 43, 61, or 83 or above. 

 

The ratio of protons to neutrons and the presence of specific "magic numbers" of protons or neutrons, which stand for closed and filled quantum shells, both influence the stability of isotopes. The filled shells, like the filled shell of 50 protons for tin, confer remarkable stability on the nuclide. These quantum shells correspond to a set of energy levels within the shell model of the nucleus. Only four of the 251 known stable nuclides, viz, hydrogen - 2 ( deuterium ), lithium - 6, boron - 10, and nitrogen - 14, have odd numbers of both protons and neutrons.

 

Observationally stable and odd - odd tantalum - 180m is projected to degrade with an extremely long half - life. Additionally, only four naturally occurring radioactive odd - odd nuclides, viz, potassium - 40, vanadium - 50, lanthanum - 138, and lutetium - 176, have a half - life greater than a billion years. Due to nuclear pairing effects, most odd - odd nuclei are extremely unstable to beta decay because the decay products are even - even and thus more tightly bonded. 

 

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Protons and neutrons, which make up an atom, account for the vast majority of its mass. The term "mass number" refers to the total number of these "nucleons" in an atom. It expresses a count, making it a positive integer with no dimensions ( rather than having a dimension of mass ). The mass number "carbon - 12," which possesses 12 nucleons ( protons and six neutrons ), is an illustration of its utilisation. Daltons ( Da ), also known as the unified atomic mass unit ( u ), are frequently used to indicate the real mass of an atom while it is at rest.

 

This quantity is equal to one - twelfth of a carbon - 12 free neutral atom's mass. The atomic weight of hydrogen - 1, the lightest isotope of hydrogen and the nuclide with the lowest mass, is 1.007825 Da. The atomic mass is the value of this number. A given atom has an atomic mass that is generally equal ( within 1% ) to its mass number times the atomic mass unit ( for instance, the mass of a nitrogen-14 is around 14 Da ), although this value won't be an exact integer unless it's carbon - 12. 

 

Lead-208 has the heaviest stable atom, with a mass of 207.9766521 Da. Chemists employ the mole instead of working directly with atoms since even the most massive ones are far too light. Any element's mole of atoms always has the same number of atoms. This value was set so that a mole of atoms of an element with an atomic mass of 1 u would have a mass close to that of 1 gramme. Because each carbon - 12 atom has an exact atomic mass of 12 Da according to the definition of the unified atomic mass unit, a mole of carbon-12 atoms weighs precisely 0.012 kg. 

 

Since an atom's outer boundary isn't clearly defined, its dimensions are typically expressed in terms of an atomic radius. This is a measurement of how far the electron cloud may be seen to stretch from the nucleus. This presupposes that the atom has a spherical shape, which only holds true for atoms in free space or a vacuum. The distances between two nuclei when two atoms are linked together in a chemical bond can be used to calculate atomic radii.

 

The radius is dependent on an atom's position on the atomic structure diagram, the kind of chemical bond, the number of nearby atoms ( coordination number ), and a quantum mechanical characteristic called spin. Atom size tends to rise when travelling down columns on the periodic table of the elements, but decrease when moving across rows ( from left to right ). The result is that the smallest atom, helium, has a radius of 32 pm, while one of the largest, caesium, has a radius of 225 pm. 

 

The form of an atom may diverge from spherical symmetry when subjected to external influences, such as electrical fields. According to group-theoretical analysis, the deformation is dependent on the strength of the field and the type of orbital that the outer shell electrons have. For instance, high crystal - electrical fields may develop at low - symmetry lattice locations in crystals, which may induce aspherical aberrations. Sulphur ions and chalcogen ions in pyrite - type compounds have been demonstrated to undergo significant ellipsoidal deformations. 

 

An optical microscope cannot view individual atoms since their diameters are thousands of times smaller than the range of light wavelengths ( 400 - 700 nm ), but a scanning tunnelling microscope can. Consider an average human hair, which has a width of roughly 1 million carbon atoms, to get a sense of how tiny an atom is. A single drop of water has twice as many hydrogen atoms as oxygen atoms, or roughly 2 sextillion. The size of the apple's atoms would be similar to that of the original apple if it were enlarged to the size of the Earth. 

 

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Every element has one or more isotopes with radioactively unstable nuclei that can decay, releasing electromagnetic radiation or nuclear particles. When a nucleus' radius exceeds that of the strong force, which only functions across distances of the order of one fm, radioactivity can result. These are the types of radioactive decay that occur most frequently. When a helium nucleus with two protons and two neutrons emits an alpha particle, the process of alpha decay is initiated. With a lower atomic number, a new element is produced as a result of the emission. 

 

The weak force controls the processes of beta decay ( and electron capture ), which are caused by the conversion of a neutron into a proton or a proton into a proton. Proton to neutron transitions ( with the exception of electron capture ) result in the emission of a positron and a neutrino, while neutron to proton transitions are accompanied by the emission of an electron and an antineutrino.

 

The discharges of electrons or positrons are known as beta particles. The atomic number of the nucleus is altered by one during beta decay. Because electron capture uses less energy than positron emission, it is more frequently used.

 

Instead of a positron being released from the nucleus, an electron is instead taken up by the nucleus in this form of decay. In this process, a proton turns into a neutron while a neutrino is still released. Gamma decay is a process in which the energy level of the nucleus is reduced, causing the emission of electromagnetic radiation. It usually happens after the emission of an alpha or beta particle for a nucleus to reach the excited state that causes gamma emission. Thus, alpha or beta decay is frequently followed by gamma decay.


Ejection of protons, neutrons, or clusters of nucleons from a nucleus, as well as the production of multiple beta particles, are other, more unusual types of radioactive decay. Internal conversion is a process that generates high - speed electrons that are not beta rays, followed by the generation of high - energy photons that are not gamma rays, and is an analogue of gamma emission that permits excited nuclei to lose energy in a different way. In a process known as spontaneous nuclear fission, a few big nuclei explode into two or more charged pieces of various masses.

 

A number of neutrons are also produced. The half - life, or characteristic decay time period for any radioactive isotope, is defined by how long it takes for half of a sample to decay. Every half - life, this exponential decay mechanism gradually reduces the amount of the remaining isotope by 50%. Thus, only 25% of the isotope is present after two half - lives, and so on. Spin is a fundamental quantum mechanical feature of elementary particles.

 

Although these particles are thought to be point - like and cannot be considered to be rotating strictly speaking, this is equivalent to the angular momentum of an object that is spinning around its centre of mass. The reduced Planck constant is used to quantify spin, since electrons, protons, and neutrons all have spin. In an atom, the nucleus itself has angular momentum because of its nuclear spin, whereas electrons moving around the nucleus have orbital angular momentum in addition to their spin. 

 

Just as a revolving charged item produces a magnetic field conventionally, the magnetic field created by an atom, its magnetic moment, is governed by these several types of angular momentum, although electron spin makes the most significant contribution. Bound electrons couple up with each other as a result of the Pauli exclusion principle, which states that no two electrons may exist in the same quantum state. In each pair, one electron is in a spin - up state while the other is in a spin - down state.

 

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As a result, in some atoms with an even number of electrons, these spins cancel one another out, bringing the total magnetic dipole moment to zero. An odd number of electrons in ferromagnetic elements like iron, cobalt, and nickel results in an unpaired electron and a net total magnetic moment. When the spins of unpaired electrons line up with each other, a spontaneous event known as an exchange interaction, the orbitals of adjacent atoms overlap, and a lower energy state is attained.

 

A material can generate a measurably strong macroscopic field when the magnetic moments of ferromagnetic atoms are aligned. When there is no magnetic field, the magnetic moments of the individual atoms in paramagnetic materials line up in random directions. However, when there is a magnetic field present, the magnetic moments of the individual atoms line up. When both neutrons and protons are present in even amounts, the nucleus of an atom will not have a spin. However, the nucleus may have a spin in other situations. 

 

Because of thermal equilibrium, spin - aligned nuclei typically face random directions, however for some elements, such as xenon - 129, it is feasible to polarise a sizable fraction of the nuclear spin states, causing them to face the same direction. This phenomenon is known as hyperpolarization. Magnetic resonance imaging will benefit greatly from this. When the distance from the nucleus reaches infinity, the potential energy of an electron in an atom is negative. 

 

The dependency on the electron's position reaches its minimum inside the nucleus, roughly in inverse proportion to the distance. A bound electron can only inhabit a limited range of states in the quantum - mechanical model, each of which corresponds to a distinct energy level. For a theoretical justifications, one can research upon the time - independent Schrödinger equation. Electron volts ( eV ) are the standard units used to express the amount of energy required to release an electron from an atom. 

 

The ground state, or stationary state, of a bound electron is its lowest energy state. In contrast, an excited state is created when an electron transitions to a higher level. Because the ( average ) distance to the nucleus grows, the energy of the electron also grows along with n. According to the Niels Bohr model, which can be precisely calculated by the Schrödinger equation, an electron must absorb or emit a photon at an energy matching the difference in the potential energy of those levels for it to transition between two states, such as from the ground state to the first excited state.

 

In a manner similar to particles, electrons hop between orbitals. One electron will change states in response to a single photon, for instance, if it hits the electrons. These particular energy levels manifest as separate bands in the electromagnetic spectrum because the energy of a photon is proportional to its frequency when it is emitted. Each element has a distinctive spectrum, which can vary depending on the nuclear charge, the electron subshells it occupies, how the electrons interact electromagnetically, and other things. 

 

When a continuous spectrum of energy is carried through a gas or plasma, some of the photons are absorbed by atoms, which changes the energy level of electrons. The excited electrons that are still bonded to their atom spontaneously release their energy as a photon, which travels in an arbitrary direction, and fall back to lower energy levels. As a result, the atoms act as a filter to provide an energy output that contains a number of dark absorption bands.

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An observer looking at the atoms from a perspective that excludes the continuous spectrum in the backdrop instead sees a sequence of emission lines from the photons released by the atoms. The composition and physical characteristics of a substance can be ascertained by spectroscopic measurements of the strength and width of atomic spectral lines. A close inspection of the spectral lines indicates that some exhibit a fine structural splitting. Because of spin - orbit coupling, which involves the interaction of the outermost electron's spin and velocity, this happens.

 

The Zeeman effect is a phenomena where spectral lines divide into three or more components when an atom is exposed to an external magnetic field. The magnetic field and the atom's and its electrons' magnetic moment interact to produce this effect. One spectral line can be observed when an atom has numerous electron configurations at the same energy level. These electron configurations are moved to somewhat various energy levels by the magnetic field's interaction with the atom, producing a variety of spectral lines.

 

The Stark effect, which is caused when an external electric field is present, can change the electron energy levels and lead to a similar splitting and shifting of spectral lines. A photon with the right energy can induce the emission of a photon with the same energy level if a bound electron is in an excited state and it interacts with that photon. In order for this to happen, the electron needs to transition to a state with a lower energy and an energy difference equal to that of the interacting photon.

 

Following that, the emitted photon and the interacting photon depart in parallel and with synchronised phases. In other words, the two photons' wave patterns are coordinated. With the help of this physical characteristic, lasers may produce coherent light beams with a specific frequency range. An element's valency is its capacity for combination. The amount of bonds it can establish with other atoms or groups is what determines its size. The valence shell and the electrons that reside in it are referred to as an atom's outermost electron shell and its valence electrons, respectively.

 

The bonding behaviour with other atoms is governed by the quantity of valence electrons. Chemical interactions between atoms frequently result in the filling ( or emptying ) of their outer valence shells. A good approximation for bonds that form between atoms with one electron extra than a filled shell and others that are one electron short of a complete shell, such as occurs in the compound sodium chloride and other chemical ionic salts, is the transfer of a single electron between atoms.

 

Numerous elements have numerous valences, or propensities to share varying quantities of electrons in various compounds. Because of this, the chemical bonds between these elements include a variety of electron - sharing processes that go beyond straightforward electron transfers. Carbon as an example, as well as organic compounds. A periodic table, which is designed to show recurrent chemical features, is frequently used to illustrate the chemical elements. Elements with the same amount of valence electrons form a group and are arranged in the same column of the table.

 

The horizontal rows represent the electrons filling a quantum shell. The noble gases, which are chemically inert substances, are produced when the elements at the extreme right of the table have their outer shells completely filled with electrons. Amounts of atoms are present in various states of matter, which depend on external physical factors like pressure and temperature. Materials can change between solids, liquids, gases, and plasmas by adjusting the circumstances. A material can also exist in many allotropes withing a state.

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Solid carbon, which can be found as graphite or diamond, is one illustration of this. Additionally, there are gaseous allotropes like ozone and dioxygen. Atoms can create a Bose - Einstein condensate at temperatures very close to absolute zero, at which point quantum mechanical effects that are typically only seen at the atomic scale become visible on a macroscopic scale. The behaviour of this group of supercooled atoms therefore resembles that of a single superatom, which would allow for important verifications of quantum mechanical behaviour. 

Seeing Atoms - Really ? 

Atoms are so small that they cannot be seen, but tools like the scanning tunnelling microscope ( STM ) allow us to observe them at the surfaces of solids. The quantum tunnelling phenomenon, which is used in the microscope, enables particles to pass through a barrier that would be impossible from a classical perspective. Between two biased electrodes, electrons can tunnel through the vacuum and produce a tunnelling current that depends exponentially on the distance between the electrodes.

 

One electrode is ideally an atom - containing sharp tip. The tip's height is changed at each point of the surface scan in order to maintain a constant tunnelling current. The height profile is determined by how close to the surface the tip moves and how far it moves away. For low bias, the microscope captures the local density of the electronic states close to the Fermi level by averaging electron orbitals across densely clustered energy levels. Due to the distances involved, both electrodes must be exceedingly stable. Only then can periodicities that are specific to individual atoms be recognised.

 

The technique is not chemically specialised and is unable to distinguish between the atomic species that are present at the surface. The mass of an atom can be used to quickly identify it. A magnetic field will cause an atom's route to bend if one of its electrons is removed, creating an ion. The mass of the atom determines the radius by which the magnetic field rotates an ion's trajectory. This idea is the basis for the mass spectrometer's measurement of the mass - to - charge ratio of ions.

 

By monitoring the strength of the several ion streams, the mass spectrometer can calculate the percentage of each isotope present in a sample if it contains multiple isotopes. Both inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectroscopy, which use a plasma to vaporise samples for analysis, are methods for vaporising atoms. Using time - of - flight mass spectrometry, the atom - probe tomograph can chemically detect individual atoms with sub - nanometer resolution in three dimensions. 

 

It is possible to determine the atomic species that are present in a sample without causing any damage by using electron emission techniques like X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ( XPS ) and Auger electron spectroscopy ( AES ), which measure the binding energies of the core electrons. Both can be made area - specific by concentrating properly. The electron energy loss spectroscopy ( EELS ), which analyses the energy loss of an electron beam inside a transmission electron microscope when it comes into contact with a part of a sample, is another such technique. 

 

To determine the atomic makeup of far - off stars, one might examine their excited state spectra. On the basis of quantum transitions in free gas atoms, specific light wavelengths present in the observed light from stars can be isolated and connected. A gas - discharge lamp made of the same substance can reproduce these hues. This method allowed for the discovery of helium 23 years before it was identified on Earth. It is believed that electrons have been in the universe since just after the Big Bang. In nucleosynthesis reactions, atomic nuclei are formed.

 

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Most of the helium, lithium, and deuterium in the universe, as well as maybe some beryllium and boron, were created in the first three minutes of the Big Bang through nucleosynthesis. Atoms' ubiquity and stability depend on their binding energy, which is lower than the energy of a nucleus and electrons in an unbound system. Plasma is a gas of positively charged ions ( perhaps even bare nuclei ) and electrons that exists where the temperature is substantially higher than the ionisation potential. 

 

Atoms become statistically advantageous when the temperature falls below the ionisation potential. 380,000 years after the Big Bang, a period known as recombination occurred when the expanding Universe cooled sufficiently to allow electrons to bond to nuclei. At this time, atoms ( complete with bound electrons ) began to dominate over charged particles. Since the Big Bang, which did not yield carbon or heavier metals, atomic nuclei have been joined in stars through the process of nuclear fusion.

 

This is to make additional helium and the elements from carbon up to iron through the triple alpha process. Cosmic ray spallation occurs in space and produces isotopes like lithium - 6 as well as some beryllium and boron. When a high - energy proton collides with an atomic nucleus, a significant number of nucleons are expelled. The r - process, which involves the capture of neutrons by atomic nuclei in supernovae and colliding neutron stars, and the s - process, which occurs in AGB stars, both entail the production of elements heavier than iron.

 

Lead is an example of an element that was primarily created through the radioactive decay of heavier elements. The majority of the atoms that comprise the Earth and its inhabitants were present in the nebula that formed the Solar System when a molecular cloud collapsed to create it. Radiometric dating can be used to estimate the relative fraction of the remaining elements, which are the product of radioactive decay, to determine the age of the Earth.

 

Due to the lower abundance of helium - 3, the majority of the helium in the Earth's crust ( about 99% of the helium from gas wells ) is a byproduct of alpha decay. On Earth, there are a small number of trace atoms that are neither products of radioactive decay nor were present at the beginning ( i.e., not "primordial" ). Cosmic rays in the atmosphere continuously produce carbon - 14. On Earth, some atoms have been produced artificially, either on purpose or as a byproduct of nuclear reactions or explosions.

 

The only naturally occurring transuranic elements, those with atomic numbers more than 92 on Earth are plutonium and neptunium. With the exception of residues of plutonium - 244, which may have been left behind by cosmic dust, all detectable amounts of transuranic elements have long since decayed because their radioactive lives are less than the Earth's age today. Neutron capture in uranium ore results in the production of natural reserves of plutonium and neptunium. 

 

99% of the atmosphere is made up of molecules, including carbon dioxide as well as diatomic oxygen and nitrogen, despite the fact that a few isolated atoms of noble gases like argon, neon, and helium do exist in minute quantities. The vast majority of atoms mix near the Earth's surface to create a variety of compounds, including water, salt, silicates, and oxides. Crystals, liquid, and solid metals are examples of materials made up entirely of atoms rather than distinct molecules.

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This atomic matter develops networked arrangements without the specific kind of molecular matter's small - scale disrupted order. It is known that all nuclides with atomic numbers greater than 82 ( lead ) are radioactive. On Earth, there is no primordial nuclide with an atomic number greater than 92 ( uranium ), and heavier elements typically have shorter half - lives. However, it is possible that a superheavy "island of stability" with somewhat stable isotopes with atomic numbers 110 to 114 exists.

 

The half - life of the island's most stable nuclide has been estimated to be anywhere from a few minutes to millions of years. In any event, in the absence of any stabilising effects, superheavy atoms ( with Z > 104 ) would not exist due to growing Coulomb repulsion ( which causes spontaneous fission with progressively shorter half - lives ). Each matter particle has an antimatter counterpart with the opposite electrical charge. In this way, the antielectron is a positively charged antielectron and the antiproton is a negatively charged analogue of a proton.

 

A matter particle and its counterpart antimatter particle collide and destroy one another. The latter are scarce in the cosmos as a result of this and an imbalance between the numbers of matter and antimatter particles. Though baryogenesis ideas may provide an answer, the initial reasons of this imbalance are not yet entirely known. There aren't any antimatter atoms in nature as a result. At the CERN laboratory in Geneva, the hydrogen atom's antimatter equivalent, antihydrogen, was created in 1996. 

 

By substituting another particle with the same charge for one of the protons, neutrons, or electrons, other unusual atoms have been made. For instance, a more powerful muon can take the place of an electron to create a muonic atom. These atoms can be used to test the basic physics hypotheses. 

What is Chemical Physics

Chemical physics is a branch of physics that examines chemical processes from a physics - based perspective. It is a subfield of chemistry and physics that uses methods from atomic, molecular, and condensed matter physics to analyse physicochemical phenomena. Chemical physics, which sits at the intersection of physics and chemistry, differs from physical chemistry in that it places a greater emphasis on the fundamental concepts and ideas of physics. Physical chemistry investigates the physical aspects of chemistry.

 

However, the line separating the two disciplines is blurry, and researchers frequently combine the two disciplines into one. According to the US Department of Education, chemical physics is "A programme that focuses on the scientific study of structural phenomena by combining the disciplines of physical chemistry and atomic or molecular physics." teaches topics such as statistical and classical mechanics, chemical kinetics, laser physics, alignment and surface phenomena, quantum theory, mathematical physics, and heterogeneous structures. 

 

The structure and behaviour of ions, free radicals, polymers, clusters, and molecules are frequently studied by chemical physicists. The behaviour of chemical reactions from a quantum mechanical perspective, the solvation process, intra - and intermolecular energy transfer, and single entities like quantum dots are among the research topics. In order to comprehend hydrogen bonding, electron transport, the creation and dissolution of chemical bonds, chemical processes, and the synthesis of nanoparticles, experimental chemical physicists use a number of spectroscopic techniques.

 

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To both explain results and direct further research, theoretical chemical physicists develop models of the molecular processes investigated in these experiments. Clarifying the structure and reactivity of gas phase ions and radicals, understanding chemical structures and reactions at the quantum mechanical level, and finding precise approximations to make the physics of chemical phenomena computationally approachable are all objectives of chemical physics research. 

 

Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of matter, especially the solid and liquid phases which arise from electromagnetic forces between atoms. More generally, the subject deals with condensed phases of matter: systems of many constituents with strong interactions among them. More exotic condensed phases include the superconducting phase exhibited by certain materials at extremely low cryogenic temperature. 

 

Also, the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases of spins on crystal lattices of atoms, and the Bose – Einstein condensate found in ultracold atomic systems. Condensed matter Physics is the branch of science that examines the macroscopic and microscopic physical characteristics of matter, particularly the solid and liquid phases that result from atom - to - atom electromagnetic forces. In a broader sense, the topic concerns condensed phases of matter, which are made up of systems with numerous elements and powerful interactions between them.

 

More unusual condensed phases include the Bose - Einstein condensate discovered in ultracold atomic systems, the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases of spins on crystal lattices of atoms, and the superconducting phase displayed by some materials at extremely low cryogenic temperatures. Condensed matter scientists use experiments to detect different material properties and mathematical models developed by using the physical rules of quantum mechanics, electromagnetism, statistical mechanics, and other physics theories.

 

It is to understand the behaviour of these phases. Condensed matter physics is the most active area of modern physics because of the wide range of systems and phenomena that can be studied. One - third of American physicists self - identify as condensed matter physicists, and the Division of Condensed Matter Physics is the largest division at the American Physical Society. This area of study has connections to atomic physics, biophysics, engineering, materials science, and nanotechnology.

 

Condensed matter theoretical physics and nuclear and particle physics both use similar concepts and techniques. According to physicist Philip Warren Anderson, he and Volker Heine changed the name of their group at the Cavendish Laboratories in Cambridge from Solid state theory to Theory of Condensed Matter in 1967 because they thought it better encompassed their interest in liquids, nuclear matter, and other topics. At that time, the term "condensed matter" had not yet been used to designate a field of study.

Although Anderson and Heine contributed to its widespread use, the term "condensed matter" had been in use in Europe for a while. It was most prominently used in the Springer - Verlag journal Physics of Condensed Matter, which was first published in 1963. While "solid state physics" was frequently linked with constrained industrial uses of metals and semiconductors, the moniker "condensed matter physics" highlighted the similarity of scientific issues faced by physicists working on solids, liquids, plasmas, and other complicated matter. 

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Some physicists believed the more inclusive moniker complemented the financing environment and Cold War politics of the era better in the 1960s and 1970s. It is possible to find references to "condensed" states in earlier texts. For instance, Yakov Frenkel suggested that "The kinetic theory of liquids must accordingly be developed as a generalisation and extension of the kinetic theory of solid bodies" in the preface to his 1947 book Kinetic Theory of Liquids. In reality, it would be more accurate to group them together under the term "condensed bodies." 

In the early decades of the nineteenth century, English chemist Humphry Davy conducted one of the earliest studies on condensed forms of matter. Twenty - six of the then - known forty chemical elements, according to Davy, have metallic characteristics like lustre, ductility, and strong electrical and thermal conductivity. This demonstrated that, contrary to John Dalton's claims, the atoms in his atomic theory had internal structure. Davy also asserted that substances previously thought to be gases, like nitrogen and hydrogen, might liquefy under the correct circumstances.

They should behave like metals. With the exception of nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen, all known gaseous elements have been successfully liquefied by Michael Faraday, who was working as Davy's lab assistant at the time. Soon after, in 1869, Dutch physicist Johannes van der Waals contributed the theoretical framework that allowed the prediction of critical behaviour based on measurements at much higher temperatures. Irish chemist Thomas Andrews studied the phase transition from a liquid to a gas and coined the term critical point.

It was to describe the state where a gas and a liquid were indistinguishable as phases. Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and James Dewar both achieved the practical liquefaction of hydrogen by 1908 as well as the discovery of helium. The earliest conceptualization of a classical electron travelling through a metallic substance was made by Paul Drude in 1900. The first microscopic model to explain empirical data like the Wiedemann - Franz law was Drude's model, which defined metal characteristics in terms of a gas of free electrons.

 

The Drude's free electron model was successful, but it had one significant flaw. It was unable to adequately explain how electrons contributed to the magnetic and specific heat properties of metals as well as the temperature dependence of resistivity at low temperatures. Three years after helium was first liquefied, in 1911, Onnes at the University of Leiden made the discovery of superconductivity in mercury when he noticed that at certain temperatures, mercury's electrical resistance vanished. 

 

The occurrence absolutely stunned the top theoretical physicists of the period and went for a long time without an explanation. In 1922, Albert Einstein stated in reference to current superconductivity hypotheses that "we are very far from being able to compose a theory out of these vague ideas" due to our "far - reaching ignorance of the quantum mechanics of composite systems." A number of scientists, including Felix Bloch, Arnold Sommerfeld, and Wolfgang Pauli, added to Drude's classical model.

 

Pauli came to understand that metal's free electrons have to adhere to the Fermi - Dirac statistics. He created the paramagnetism theory in 1926 based on this concept. Shortly after, Sommerfeld improved the free electron model by adding the Fermi - Dirac statistics and explaining the heat capacity. Bloch utilised quantum mechanics to explain the mobility of an electron in a periodic lattice two years later. To categorise crystals according to their symmetry group, mathematicians Auguste Bravais, Yevgraf Fyodorov, and others constructed tables of crystal structures.

 

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These tables served as the foundation for the 1935 - released International Tables of Crystallography series. In order to forecast the properties of novel materials, band structure calculations were first employed in 1930. In 1947, John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley created the first semiconductor - based transistor, ushering in a revolution in electronics. At the Johns Hopkins University, Edwin Herbert Hall made the discovery of a voltage that generated across conductors in 1879 along with a magnetic field that was perpendicular to the current.

 

The Hall effect was named for this phenomena that developed as a result of the conductor's charge carriers, but it was not adequately understood at the time because the electron was not experimentally discovered until 18 years later. Lev Landau created the Landau quantization theory in 1930 after the development of quantum mechanics, laying the groundwork for the theoretical justification of the quantum Hall effect that was discovered half a century later. China has been aware of magnetism as a characteristic of matter since 4000 BC.

 

The development of electrodynamics by Faraday, Maxwell, and others in the nineteenth century, which included classifying materials as ferromagnetic, paramagnetic, and diamagnetic based on their response to magnetization, is what actually marked the beginning of current study of magnetism. The Curie point phase transition in ferromagnetic materials was found by Pierre Curie while researching the relationship between magnetism and temperature.

 

In order to explain the fundamental characteristics of ferromagnets, Pierre Weiss developed the idea of magnetic domains in 1906. Wilhelm Lenz and Ernst Ising made the first attempt to characterise magnetism at the microscopic level with their Ising model, which stated that magnetic materials were made up of a periodic lattice of spins that collectively acquired magnetization. In order to demonstrate that spontaneous magnetization is not achievable in one dimension but is conceivable in higher - dimensional lattices, the Ising model was precisely solved.

 

Additional studies on spin waves and anti - ferromagnetism, such as those by Bloch and Néel, resulted in the creation of new magnetic materials that can be used in magnetic storage systems. The Sommerfeld model and spin models for ferromagnetism provided examples of how quantum mechanics may be successfully applied to condensed matter issues in the 1930s. There were still a number of issues that needed to be resolved, most notably how to describe superconductivity and the Kondo effect.

 

Several concepts from quantum field theory were used to solve condensed matter issues after World War II. These included the understanding of solids' collective excitation modes and the crucial concept of a quasiparticle. Lev Landau, a Russian physicist, developed the Fermi liquid theory, which describes the low energy features of interacting fermion systems in terms of what are now known as Landau - quasiparticles. Additionally, Landau created a mean - field theory for continuous phase transitions that characterised ordered phases as a spontaneous symmetry breakdown. 

 

In order to distinguish between ordered phases, the theory also introduced the idea of an order parameter. The so - called BCS theory of super conductivity was eventually developed by John Bardeen, Leon Cooper, and John Schrieffer in 1956 and is based on the finding that an arbitrary small attraction between two electrons with opposite spins, mediated by phonons in the lattice, can result in a bound state known as a Cooper pair. In the 1960s, a major area of study was phase transitions and the critical behaviour of observables, sometimes known as critical phenomena.

 

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Widom scaling and critical exponents were established by Leo Kadanoff, Benjamin Widom, and Michael Fisher. In the framework of quantum field theory, Kenneth G. Wilson combined these concepts in 1972. He did so using the renormalization group formalism. When they noticed that the Hall conductance was integer multiples of a basic constant in 1980, Klaus von Klitzing, Dorda, and Pepper made the quantum Hall effect discovery. The impact was shown to be unaffected by variables like system size and contaminants.

 

A proposal explaining the integral plateau's unexpected precision was put out by theorist Robert Laughlin in 1981. The Chern number, a topological invariant whose significance for the band structure of solids was developed by David J. Thouless and coworkers, was also inferred to be inversely correlated with the Hall conductance. The fractional quantum Hall effect was soon discovered by Horst Störmer and Daniel Tsui in 1982, where the conductance was now a reasonable multiple of the constant.

 

In 1983, Laughlin came up with a variational technique solution he called the Laughlin wavefunction after realising that this was a result of quasiparticle interaction in the Hall states. Research is still being done on the topological characteristics of the fractional Hall effect. Years later, David J. Thouless and coworkers improved the topological band theory they had developed, which helped them find topological insulators. The first high temperature superconductor was a substance that was superconducting at temperatures as high as 50 kelvins.

 

It was found in 1986 by Karl Müller and Johannes Bednorz. It was discovered that highly correlated materials with significant electron-electron interactions include high temperature superconductors. Strongly correlated materials are still a hot area of research because there is yet no adequate theoretical explanation of high - temperature superconductors. When forming practical films of different gases, David Field and his colleagues at Aarhus University discovered spontaneous electric fields in 2009. Spontelectrics is a more recent branch of this area of study. 

 

According to multiple preprints published in 2012, samarium hexaboride appears to have topological insulator characteristics that are consistent with earlier theoretical predictions. It is predicted that the presence of a topological Dirac surface state in samarium hexaboride will result in a topological insulator with significant electronic correlations because this compound is a well - known Kondo insulator, or a strongly correlated electron material. Condensed matter theory In physics, theoretical models are employed to comprehend the characteristics of states of matter.

 

These consist of the Drude model, band structure, and density functional theory models for studying the electrical characteristics of solids. The Ginzburg - Landau theory, critical exponents, and the application of mathematical techniques from quantum field theory and the renormalization group are a few examples of theoretical models that have been constructed to understand the physics of phase transitions. We need to comprehend phenomena like high - temperature superconductivity, topological phases and gauge symmetries.

 

To accomplish it modern theoretical investigations use numerical calculation of electronic structure and mathematical techniques. The concept of emergence, which describes how complex assemblies of particles behave in ways that are radically different from those of their individual parts, is strongly tied to the theoretical understanding of condensed matter physics. Even while the microscopic physics of individual electrons and lattices is widely established, many phenomena associated to high temperature superconductivity, for instance, remain poorly understood.

 

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Condensed matter systems have also been explored in models where collective excitations act like photons and electrons, representing electro - magnetism as an emergent phenomenon. Emergent characteristics can also appear at the boundary between two materials. The lanthanum aluminate - strontium titanate interface is one such instance, where the joining of two band insulators results in conductivity and superconductivity. In the past, the metallic state has provided a crucial foundation for understanding the characteristics of solids.

 

Paul Drude's Drude model, which explained electrical and thermal properties by defining a metal as an ideal gas of then - newly discovered electrons, provided the first theoretical description of metals in 1900. He succeeded in deriving the empirical Wiedemann - Franz law and obtained findings that were remarkably similar to those of the experiments. Arnold Sommerfeld later enhanced this classical model by include the Fermi - Dirac statistics of electrons, which enabled him to explain the unusual behaviour of the specific heat of metals in the Wiedemann - Franz law. 

 

Max von Laue and Paul Knipping examined the structure of crystalline solids in 1912 after observing the X-ray diffraction pattern of crystals and coming to the conclusion that crystals are made up of periodic lattices of atoms. Bloch's theorem, which is a wave function solution to the Schrödinger equation with a periodic potential, was developed by Swiss physicist Felix Bloch in 1928. It is frequently computationally challenging to calculate the electrical characteristics of metals by solving the many - body wavefunction.

 

So, approximation techniques are required to make accurate predictions. The local electron density was treated as a variational parameter in the 1920s Thomas - Fermi theory in order to estimate system energy and electronic density. The so - called Hartree - Fock wavefunction was created later in the 1930s by Douglas Hartree, Vladimir Fock, and John Slater as an improvement to the Thomas - Fermi model. The exchange statistics of single particle electron wavefunctions were taken into consideration by the Hartree - Fock approach.

 

In general, the Hartree - Fock equation is highly challenging to solve. Only the case of the free electron gas can be solved precisely. Finally, the density functional theory ( DFT ) was put forth in 1964 – 1965, by Walter Kohn, Pierre Hohenberg, and Lu Jeu Sham, and it provided accurate explanations of the bulk and surface properties of metals. Since the 1970s, many solids have had their band structures calculated using the density functional theory. When the applicable physical principles have some kind of symmetry that is disrupted, certain states of matter show symmetry breakdown.

 

Crystalline solids, which violate continuous translational symmetry, are a frequent example. Other instances include the rotating symmetry-breaking properties of magnetised ferromagnets and more exotic states like the ground state of a BCS superconductor. According to Goldstone's Theorem in quantum field theory, there may be excitations with arbitrarily low energy, known as Goldstone bosons, in a system with broken continuous symmetry. These, for instance, correspond to phonons in crystalline materials, which are quantized variations of lattice vibrations. 

Phase transition is the term used to describe a system's change in phase as a result of an external parameter, such as temperature. When the system's order has been disrupted, a classic phase transition takes place at a fixed temperature. For instance, the organised crystal structure is broken as ice melts and turns into water. When order is disrupted by quantum fluctuations resulting from the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, the temperature is set to absolute zero in quantum phase transitions. 

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Also, the non - thermal control parameter, such as pressure or magnetic field, causes the phase transitions. Here, the various quantum phases of the system refer to various Hamiltonian matrix ground states. The challenging task of elucidating the characteristics of high - temperature super conductors, rare - earth magnetic insulators, and other substances requires an understanding of the behaviour of quantum phase transition. First -order transitions and second - order, or continuous transitions, are the two types of phase transitions that take place.

 

In the latter case, the two phases cannot coexist at the critical point, also known as the transition temperature. Systems experience critical behaviour close to the critical point, during which a number of their characteristics, including correlation length, specific heat, and magnetic susceptibility, exponentially diverge. The standard macroscopic laws no longer apply in the area due to these critical occurrences, and new theories and techniques must be developed in order to identify the new laws that can adequately characterise the system. 

 

The Ginzburg - Landau theory, which operates in the so-  called mean - field approximation, is the most basic theory that may explain continuous phase transitions. It can only roughly account for continuous phase transitions in type I superconductors and ferroelectrics, which entail far - reaching microscopic interactions. A better theory is required for various sorts of systems that involve short-range interactions close to the critical point. The variations around the critical point occur throughout a wide range of size scales, despite the fact that the system as a whole is scale invariant.

 

The shortest wavelength variations are gradually averaged out using renormalization group procedures, but their effects are carried over to the following stage. Thus, it is possible to conduct a systematic investigation of how a physical system changes when observed at various size scales. In experimental condensed matter physics, new material properties are sought after using experimental probes. Effects of electric and magnetic fields, measurement of response functions, transport characteristics, and thermometry are a few examples of these probes. 

 

The study of thermal response, including the measurement of transport by thermal and heat conduction, as well as spectroscopy, which uses probes like X - rays, infrared light, and inelastic neutron scattering, are often used experimental techniques. In a number of condensed matter investigations, an experimental probe, such as an X - ray, an optical photon, a neutron, etc., is scattered on the components of a material. The observation energy scale of interest determines the best scattering probe to use. 

 

Visible light, which has energy on the order of one electron volt ( eV ), is used as a scattering probe to measure changes in the dielectric constant and refractive index of many types of materials. With energy in the range of 10 keV, X - rays may probe atomic length scales and are used to track changes in electron charge density. Since neutrons have spin but no charge, they are utilised to analyse scattering off nuclei, electron spins, and magnetization. Neutrons can also explore atomic length scales.

 

Electron beams can be used as scattering probes to measure Coulomb and Mott scattering. Similar to this, local electron density can be inferred indirectly from positron annihilation. When examining the microscopic characteristics of a medium, such as prohibited transitions in media with nonlinear optical spectroscopy, laser spectroscopy is a superb instrument. External magnetic fields function as thermodynamic variables in experimental condensed matter physics, controlling the state, phase transitions, and characteristics of material systems.

 

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By using external magnetic fields to identify specific electron resonance modes, nuclear magnetic resonance ( NMR ) is a technique that reveals details about the local atomic, molecule, and bond structures. NMR tests can be conducted in magnetic fields up to 60 tesla in strength. Data from NMR measurements may be of higher quality at stronger magnetic fields. High magnetic fields are employed in quantum oscillations, another experimental technique, to examine material characteristics including the Fermi surface's shape.

 

In order to test numerous theoretical hypotheses, such as the quantized magnetoelectric effect, the image magnetic monopole, and the half-integer quantum Hall effect, high magnetic fields will be helpful. Nuclear spectroscopy techniques, which are extremely sensitive to minor changes, can be used to explore the local structure, or the structure of the nearest neighbour atoms, of condensed matter. The nucleus is used to create particular, radioactive nuclei, which operate as the probe in hyperfine interactions with the electric and magnetic fields around them.

 

The techniques can be used to explore magnetism, diffusion, phase change, and flaws. NMR, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and perturbed angular correlation ( PAC ) are a few examples of common techniques. Due to the method's lack of temperature dependence, PAC in particular is suited for the investigation of phase shifts at severe temperatures above 2000 °C. A frequent experimental technique in atomic, molecular, and optical physics as well as in condensed matter physics is ultracold atom trapping in optical lattices.

 

The process includes creating an interference pattern with optical lasers that serves as a lattice in which ions or atoms can be positioned at extremely low temperatures. The use of cold atoms in optical lattices as quantum simulators, or as programmable systems that can simulate the behaviour of more complex systems like frustrated magnets, is a growing field. To explore phase transitions for antiferromagnetic and spin liquid ordering, they are specifically employed to create one-, two-, and three - dimensional lattices for a Hubbard model with pre - specified parameters. 

 

In 1995, the Bose - Einstein condensate, a new form of matter first predicted by S. N. Bose and Albert Einstein, in which a large number of atoms occupy one quantum state, was experimentally realised using a gas of rubidium atoms cooled down to a temperature of 170 nK. Condensed matter physics research has influenced the creation of a number of devices, including the semiconductor transistor, laser technology, and a number of nanotechnology - related phenomena.

 

The study of nanofabrication has been made possible by techniques like scanning-tunneling microscopy, which may be used to regulate processes at the nanoscale scale. For instance, chemistry Nobel laureate Ben Feringa created such molecular devices. He created a number of molecular devices with his team, including a molecular automobile, windmill, and others. Quantum bits, or qubits, are used to encode information in quantum processing. The qubits could rapidly decohere before a relevant computation is finished.

 

Before quantum computing can be implemented, this significant issue must be resolved. Condensed matter physics has numerous interesting solutions for this issue, including Josephson junction qubits, spintronic qubits utilising the magnetic material's spin orientation, and topological non-Abelian anyons from fractional quantum Hall effect states. The experimental technique of magnetic resonance imaging, which is frequently employed in medical diagnostics, is one application of condensed matter physics that is significant for biophysics. 

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What is BioChemistry ?

The study of chemical processes that occur within and relate to live beings is known as biochemistry or biological chemistry. The sciences of structural biology, enzymology, and metabolism might be considered subfields of biochemistry, a branch of both chemistry and biology. Biochemistry has improved in explaining life processes through these three disciplines over the past few decades of the 20th century. Biochemical methods and research are revealing and developing almost all aspects of the biological sciences.

 

Understanding the chemical underpinnings that allow biological molecules to give rise to cellular interactions and processes within live cells is the main emphasis of biochemistry, which has significant implications for understanding tissues and organs as well as the structure and function of organisms. The study of the molecular mechanisms underlying biological events is known as molecular biology, and it is closely related to the field of biochemistry. 

 

The structures, bonds, activities, and interactions of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids are a major focus of biochemistry. They carry out many of the tasks necessary for life and give cells their structure. The interactions of ions and tiny molecules play an important role in the chemistry of the cell. These can be inorganic ( like water and metal ions ) or organic ( like the amino acids needed to make proteins ), among other examples.

 

Metabolism refers to the processes through which cells extract energy from their surroundings through chemical processes. The main fields in which biochemistry's findings are used are medicine, nutrition, and agriculture. Biochemists look into the causes and treatments of illnesses in the medical field. Nutrition researches the impact of nutritional shortages as well as ways to preserve health and fitness. Biochemists research soil and fertilisers in relation to agriculture. Other objectives include enhancing insect control, crop storage, and agricultural cultivation.

 

Biochemistry is crucial because it enables people to understand complex subjects like prions. In its broadest sense, biochemistry can be described as the study of the elements that make up living things and how they combine to form life. Accordingly, the history of biochemistry may date all the way back to the time of the ancient Greeks. However, depending on whatever part of biochemistry is being studied, the history of biochemistry as a distinct scientific field dates to the 19th century or possibly even a little earlier.

 

Some claimed that the discovery of the first enzyme, diastase ( now known as amylase ), by Anselme Payen in 1833 may have marked the beginning of biochemistry, while others thought Eduard Buchner's 1897 demonstration of the first complex biochemical process, alcoholic fermentation in cell - free extracts to have done so. A chemical theory of metabolism was presented in the influential 1842 work by Justus von Liebig, Animal Chemistry, as well as in its applications to physiology and pathology and even earlier in Antoine Lavoisier's 18th century studies on fermentation and respiration.

 

The founders of contemporary biochemistry include a large number of additional field pioneers who contributed to revealing the depths of biochemistry's complexity. Early biochemists like Emil Fischer, who investigated the chemistry of proteins, and F. Gowland Hopkins, who investigated enzymes and the dynamic aspect of biochemistry, are two examples. Even the word "biochemistry" is a result of the fusion of biology and chemistry and is in the introduction to the first issue of Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie ( Journal of Physiological Chemistry ) in 1877. 

 

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Felix Hoppe - Seyler argued for the establishment of institutes devoted to this field of study and used the term ( biochemie in German ) as a synonym for physiological chemistry. However, Carl Neuberg, a German scientist, is frequently credited with coming up with the term in 1903, though Franz Hofmeister is also sometimes given credit. It was originally widely believed that only living things could create the molecules of life. Also, life and its components have some fundamental quality or substance ( sometimes referred to as the "vital principle" ).

 

It was separate from any found in non-living stuff. Some people consider Friedrich Wöhler's 1828 publication of a paper on his accidental urea synthesis using potassium cyanate and ammonium sulphate to be the direct cause of the demise of vitalism and the birth of organic chemistry. But some people disagree with the Wöhler synthesis's claim that vitalism has died as a result of his work. Since that time, and particularly since the middle of the 20th century, biochemistry has evolved.

 

All this is thanks to the invention of new techniques including chromatography, X-ray diffraction, dual polarisation interferometry, NMR spectroscopy, radioisotopic labelling, electron microscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations. Through the use of these methods, numerous chemicals and cellular metabolic processes, including glycolysis and the Krebs cycle ( citric acid cycle ), were discovered and thoroughly analysed, enabling a molecular understanding of biochemistry. 

 

The discovery of the gene and its significance for information transfer in cells is another important historical development in biochemistry. James D. Watson, Francis Crick, Rosalind Franklin, and Maurice Wilkins all played key roles in the 1950s in resolving DNA structure and putting out evidence for its connection to genetic information transfer. For studies on fungi that demonstrated that one gene produces one enzyme, George Beadle and Edward Tatum were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1958.

 

Colin Pitchfork was the first person to be found guilty of murder using DNA evidence, which sparked the development of forensic science, in 1988. More recently, RNA interference ( RNAi ) and its involvement in the silencing of gene expression were discovered by Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello, who shared the 2006 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Approximately twenty chemical components are necessary for all forms of biological life. With the exception of selenium and iodine, the majority of rare Earth elements are not required for life. 

 

Also, a few common ones ( aluminium and titanium ) are also not utilised. Although most creatures require the same elements, there are some distinctions between plants and animals. For instance, bromine is used by oceanic algae but not by terrestrial plants or animals. Sodium is a necessary element for all mammals but not for plants. Animals may not need boron or silicon ( or may only require very modest amounts ), but plants do. Nearly 99% of the mass of living cells, including those in the human body, is composed of just six elements.

 

What are BioMolecules ?

These elements are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, calcium, and phosphorus. One can see composition of the human body for a more complete and comprehensive list. Humans require smaller amounts of up to 18 other elements in addition to the six main ones that make up the majority of the human body. Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids are the four major categories of molecules that make up biochemistry ( and are often referred to as biomolecules ).

 

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Glucose and Metabolism - Explorative Discussion :

In this definition, polymers are enormous macro molecules that are formed when monomers, which are relatively small macromolecules, are connected together. The process of dehydration synthesis occurs when monomers are joined to create a biological polymer. Larger complexes of various macromolecules can form and are frequently required for biological action. Carbohydrates serve a variety of purposes, including the storage of energy and creation of structure. Glucose is one of the most popular sugars, however not all carbohydrates are sugars.

 

The majority of biomolecules that are known to exist on Earth are carbohydrates, which are also utilised to store genetic information, communicate between cells, and store energy. A monosaccharide is the simplest type of carbohydrate and has the general formula CnH2nOn, where n is at least 3. Its features include the presence of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, typically in the ratios of 1:2:1. Of all the carbohydrates, glucose ( C6H12O6 ) is one of the most crucial. 

 

Other examples are deoxyribose ( C5H10O4 ), a component of DNA, and fructose ( C6H12O6 ), the sugar frequently linked to the sweet flavour of fruits. A monosaccharide can alternate between its cyclic and acyclic ( open - chain ) forms. A ring of carbon atoms can be formed from the open - chain form by joining the carbonyl group at one end and the hydroxyl group at the other, creating an oxygen atom as a bridge. Depending on whether the linear form was an aldose or a ketose, the cyclic molecule either has a hemiacetal or hemiketal group. 

 

The ring in these cyclic forms typically has 5 or 6 atoms. By comparison with furan and pyran, the two most basic compounds having the same carbon-oxygen ring, these forms are referred to as furanoses and pyranoses, respectively ( even though they lack the carbon - carbon double bonds of these two molecules ). For instance, the hydroxyl on carbon 1 and the oxygen on carbon 4 of the aldohexose glucose may form a hemiacetal bond, resulting in a molecule with a 5 - membered ring known as glucofuranose.

 

The same reaction can result in the formation of glucopyranose, a molecule with a 6-membered ring, between carbons 1 and 5. Heptoses, which are cyclic structures with a 7 - atom ring, are uncommon. Through a dehydration reaction in which a molecule of water is released, two mono saccharides can be linked together by a glycosidic or ester bond to form a disaccharide. The process of breaking a disaccharide's glycosidic bond into two monosaccharides is known as hydrolysis.

 

The most popular disaccharide is sucrose, also known as regular sugar, which is made up of linked glucose and fructose molecules. Lactose, a disaccharide made up of two glucose and one galactose molecules and present in milk, is another significant disaccharide. Lactase has the ability to hydrolyze lactose, and a lack of this enzyme causes lactose intolerance. An oligosaccharide is formed when three to six monosaccharides are linked together; oligo means "few" in Greek. These compounds frequently serve as markers and signals in addition to their various applications.

 

A polysaccharide is created by joining several mono saccharides. They could be branched or connected in a long, linear chain. Cellulose and glycogen are two of the most prevalent polysaccharides; they are both made up of repeated glucose monomers. Animals store energy in the form of glycogen, while plants utilise cellulose as a structural component of their cell walls. Whether the ends of sugar are reducing or non - reducing can be used to describe it.

 

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A carbon atom that can be in equilibrium with either the open - chain aldehyde ( aldose ) or the keto form ( ketose ) is known as a carbohydrate's reducing end. The free hydroxy group of the pyranose or furanose form is exchanged with an OH - side chain of another sugar, producing a complete acetal, if the joining of monomers occurs at such a carbon atom. This makes the changed residue non - reducing and stops the chain from opening to the aldehyde or keto form. 

 

While the glucose moiety in lactose has a reducing end, the glucose moiety in galactose forms a complete acetal with the C4 - OH group of glucose. The entire acetal synthesis between the aldehyde carbon of glucose ( C1 ) and the keto carbon of fructose ( C2 ) prevents saccharose from having a reducing end. Wax, fatty acids, phospholipids generated from fatty acids, sphingolipids, glycolipids, and terpenoids ( such as retinoids and steroids ) are just a few examples of the wide variety of molecules that make up lipids.

 

Lipids can serve as a general term for generally water-insoluble or nonpolar chemicals of biological origin. While some lipids have ring structures, others are open - chain, linear aliphatic molecules. Others are not aromatic, whereas some have cyclic or ring and planar or flat structures. While some are malleable, others are unyielding. One glycerol molecule is typically joined with additional molecules to form lipids. Triglycerides, the primary class of bulk lipids, are composed of three fatty acids and one molecule of glycerol. 

 

In that situation, fatty acids are regarded as monomers and can either be saturated ( where there are no double bonds in the carbon chain ) or unsaturated ( where there are one or more double bonds in the carbon chain ). The majority of lipids are primarily nonpolar and also contain some polar characteristics. The majority of its structure is often nonpolar or hydrophobic ( "water - fearing "), which means that it has a poor affinity for polar solvents like water.

 

They also have a polar or hydrophilic ( literally, "water - loving" ) component to their structure, which tends to associate with polar solvents like water. Because of this, they are amphiphilic molecules, which contain both hydrophobic and hydrophilic components. The polar group in the case of cholesterol is merely -OH ( hydroxyl or alcohol ). The polar groups in phospholipids are noticeably bigger and more polar. Our daily diet includes lipids in large quantities. The majority of cooking and eating oils and dairy products, including butter, cheese, ghee, and others, are made of fats.

 

Many different poly unsaturated fatty acids ( PUFA ) are abundant in vegetable oils. Foods containing lipids are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol during digestion in the body, which is the last step in the breakdown of fats and lipids. Phospholipids, in particular, are also employed in a number of pharmaceutical products, either as co - solubilizers ( such as in parenteral infusions ) or as components of drug carriers ( such as in liposomes or transfersomes ). 

 

Macro - biopolymers known as proteins are very big molecules made of monomers known as amino acids. The components of an amino acid are an alpha carbon atom joined to an amino group, -NH2, a carboxylic acid group, -COOH ( although these occur as -NH3+ and -COO under physiologic conditions ), a single hydrogen atom, and a side chain that is typically indicated by the prefix "-R." There are 20 typical amino acids, each with a unique side chain called "R."

 

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Each amino acid differs due to this "R" group, and the side - chain characteristics have a significant impact on the overall three - dimensional structure of a protein. Certain amino acids can be used on their own or in modified form. For example, glutamate serves as a crucial neurotransmitter. Peptide bonds can be used to connect amino acids. A water molecule is eliminated during the dehydration synthesis, and the peptide bond then links the nitrogen of one amino acid's amino group to the carbon of another's carboxylic acid group.

 

Short lengths of amino acids ( often less than thirty ) are known as peptides or polypeptides, and the resulting molecule is known as a dipeptide. The term "proteins" refers to longer spans. Albumin, a significant blood serum protein, has 585 amino acid residues, for instance. Proteins can have both functional and structural purposes. For instance, the contraction of skeletal muscle is ultimately caused by the motions of the proteins actin and myosin. One characteristic that many proteins share is the ability to selectively bind to a particular molecule or set of molecules. 

 

Proteins that bind to a particular kind of molecule include antibodies. Heavy and light chains make up the antigens in antibodies. The disulfide connections between their amino acids would join two heavy chains to two light chains. Because of variance depending on variations in the N - terminal domain, antibodies are specific. One of the most accurate tests used in contemporary medicine to identify diverse macromolecules is the enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA ), which employs antibodies.

 

The enzymes, however, are arguably the most significant proteins. A live cell practically always needs an enzyme to reduce the activation energy of the reaction. These compounds catalyse the process between certain reactant molecules, known as substrates. The enzyme accelerates the reaction by a factor of 1011 or more by lowering the activation energy; a reaction that would ordinarily take more than 3,000 years to complete spontaneously may do so in less than a second with an enzyme. As a result, the enzyme is not depleted and is able to catalyse the same reaction with fresh substrates.

 

The activity of the enzyme can be controlled using a variety of modifiers, allowing the biochemistry of the cell as a whole to be managed. Traditionally, a hierarchy of four levels has been used to explain the structure of proteins. A protein's main structure is its linear amino acid sequence, such as "alanine - glycine - tryptophan - serine - glutamate - asparagine - glycine - lysine - ...". Local morphology, which is the study of structure, is a topic of secondary structure. Several amino acid combinations have a propensity to coil up into sheets or coils known as helixes.

 

Several helixes may be seen in the haemoglobin diagram above. The entirety of the protein's three-dimensional shape is its tertiary structure. The order of amino acids determines its shape. In reality, a single modification has the power to alter the whole system. The 146 amino acid residues that make up hemoglobin's alpha chain are changed when the glutamate residue at position 6 is swapped out for a valine residue, which causes sickle - cell disease. 

 

The structure of a protein having numerous peptide components, like hemoglobin's four subunits, is concerned with quaternary structure. Not all proteins contain several subunits. In the small intestine, ingested proteins are typically disassembled into single amino acids or dipeptides before being absorbed. After that, they can be combined to create new proteins. All twenty amino acids can be formed from intermediates of glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the pentose phosphate pathway, and the majority of bacteria and plants have all the enzymes required to do so.

 

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However, only half of them can be synthesised by mammals, including humans. Leucine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine cannot be synthesised by them. These are the necessary amino acids since they have to be consumed. Animals like mammals do have the enzymes needed to produce the non - essential amino acids alanine, asparagine, aspartate, cysteine, glutamate, glutamine, glycine, proline, serine, and tyrosine. 

 

Although they are capable of synthesising histidine and arginine, young, growing animals are unable to do so, hence these amino acids are frequently regarded as essential. An a-keto acid is what remains after removing the amino group from an amino acid, leaving behind a carbon skeleton. Trans aminases are enzymes that can quickly change a-keto acid from one amino acid to another amino acid by adding the amino group. This is crucial for the biosynthesis of amino acids. 

 

This is since many of the pathways start with the conversion of intermediates from other metabolic pathways to the a-keto acid skeleton before adding an amino group, frequently through transamination. A protein may then be created by joining the amino acids together. Proteins are broken down via a similar method. It is initially hydrolyzed to release its individual amino acids. Life forms are poisonous to free ammonia ( NH3 ), which is present in blood as the ammonium ion ( NH4+ ). It must consequently be excreted in a proper manner.

 

Depending on the demands of the individual species, several strategies have developed. The ammonia is released into the environment by unicellular organisms. The ammonia can also be released into the water by bony fish, where it is quickly diluted. Mammals often use the urea cycle to convert ammonia to urea. Scientists utilise sequence - comparison methods to ascertain if two proteins are homologous or not, or to assess whether they are related. Scientists can find homologies between related molecules using strong methods like structure and sequence alignments.

 

Beyond helping to create an evolutionary pattern of protein families, discovering homologies between proteins is important. We can learn more about a protein's structure and consequently its function by comparing the similarities between two protein sequences. The family of biopolymers is referred to as nucleic acids in general because they are common in cellular nuclei. They are intricate, heavy biochemical macromolecules that can transmit genetic data to all living cells and viruses. The monomers are known as nucleotides, and each one is made up of three elements as follows. 

 

A pentose sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous heterocyclic base ( either a purine or a pyrimidine ). Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA ) and ribonucleic acid ( RNA ) are the two most prevalent nucleic acids. The backbone of the nucleic acid is made up of the phosphate group and sugar of each nucleotide, which combine to store information in a series of nitrogenous bases. Adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, and uracil are the most prevalent nitrogenous bases. 

 

Similar to a zipper, the nitrogenous bases in each of a nucleic acid's strands will create hydrogen bonds with certain nitrogenous bases in a complimentary strand. Thymine can only bind with adenine, uracil and cytosine can only bind with one another, and cytosine and guanine can only bind with one another. There are two hydrogen bonds between adenine and thymine, two between adenine and uracil, and three between cytosine and guanine. In addition to serving as the cell's genetic blueprint, nucleic acids frequently act as second messengers.

 

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They also serve as the building block of adenosine triphosphate ( ATP ), the main energy - carrying molecule in all living things. Adenine, cytosine, and guanine are found in both RNA and DNA, however thymine is only found in DNA and uracil is found in RNA. The nitrogenous bases that can be found in the two nucleic acids are also distinct. Most living things use glucose as an energy source. For instance, glycogen phosphorylase removes glucose residues from glycogen, a polysaccharide, allowing enzymes to break polysaccharides down into their monomers.

 

Disaccharides like lactose and sucrose are broken down into their two mono saccharide components. One molecule of glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate as a result of glycolysis, a crucial ten - step metabolic pathway that plays a major role in the metabolism of glucose. On top pf it, this results in the production of two reducing equivalents of the conversion of NAD+ ( nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide : oxidised form ) to NADH ( nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide : reduced form ) and two net molecules of ATP, the energy currency of cells.

 

The NAD is regenerated by converting the pyruvate to lactate ( lactic acid ), as in humans, or to ethanol plus carbon dioxide, as in yeast, if oxygen is not present ( or the cell cannot use oxygen ). Galactose and fructose, two other monosaccharides, can also be transformed into glycolytic pathway intermediates. The pyruvate is further metabolised in aerobic cells with adequate oxygen, which includes the majority of human cells. It is changed into acetyl - CoA permanently, releasing one carbon atom as waste carbon dioxide, and producing another reducing equivalent as NADH.

 

Following their entry into the citric acid cycle, the two acetyl - CoA molecules ( from one molecule of glucose ) produce two molecules of ATP, six additional NADH molecules, two reduced ubiquinones, and release the remaining carbon atoms as carbon dioxide. The enzyme complexes of the respiratory chain, an electron transport system that transfers electrons ultimately to oxygen and stores the released energy in the form of a proton gradient over a membrane ( the inner mitochondrial membrane in eukaryotes ), are fed by the NADH and quinol molecules produced.

 

As a result, oxygen is converted to water, and NAD+ and quinone, the original electron acceptors, are restored. For this reason, people breathe in oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. The energy generated when NADH and quinol's high - energy levels are transferred to lower - energy states is first preserved as a proton gradient before being transformed to ATP by ATP synthase. In total, 32 molecules of ATP are conserved per unit of degraded glucose ( two from glycolysis and two from the citrate cycle ).

 

It is produced by producing an additional 28 molecules of ATP ( 24 from the 8 NADH + 4 from the 2 quinols ). It is obvious that using oxygen to completely oxidise glucose gives an organism much more energy than any oxygen - dependent metabolic trait, which is assumed to be the reason why complex life only emerged when Earth's atmosphere gathered enormous amounts of oxygen. In vertebrates, when skeletal muscles contract vigorously ( during weightlifting or sprinting, for example ), there is not enough oxygen delivered to meet the energy demand.

 

As a result, the muscles switch to anaerobic metabolism, turning glucose into lactate. a mixture of glucose derived from sources other than carbs, such as proteins and fats. Only when the liver's glycogen reserves are depleted does this occur. The mechanism, which can utilise a variety of substrates including amino acids, glycerol, and the Krebs Cycle, is essential for switching from pyruvate to glucose during glycolysis. Those who are starving or have specific endocrine problems typically experience large - scale protein and fat catabolism.

 

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Utilising a procedure known as gluconeogenesis, the liver produces new glucose. This mechanism, which uses three times as much energy as glycolysis ( using six ATP molecules as opposed to two in glycolysis ), is not quite the opposite of glycolysis. Similar to the events mentioned above, the newly created glucose can then go through glycolysis in tissues that require energy, be stored as glycogen ( or starch in plants ), be changed into other mono saccharides, or be linked with other mono saccharides to form di- or oligosaccharides.

 

The Cori cycle refers to the interconnected mechanisms that occur during exercise, transport lactate from the bloodstream to the liver, trigger gluconeogenesis, and release glucose into the bloodstream. Researchers in the subject of biochemistry employ specialised methods unique to the discipline but increasingly combine them with methods and concepts from genetics, molecular biology, and biophysics. The boundaries between these fields are not clearly defined.

The chemistry necessary for molecules to function biologically is studied in biochemistry, their biological function is studied in molecular biology, and their heredity, which is transmitted by their genome, is studied in genetics. The following potential correlations between the fields illustrate this. The study of chemical components and metabolic processes in living things is known as biochemistry. The role, purpose, and structure of biomolecules are major areas of study for biochemists.

 

Applications of biochemistry include the creation of biologically active chemicals and the investigation of the chemistry underlying biological processes. Atomic and molecular investigations of life are conducted in biochemistry. The study of genetics examines how genetic variations in organisms affect them. The absence of a normal component, like one gene, can frequently be used to infer this. The study of "mutants" or organisms that differ from the so - called "wild type" or typical phenotype in at least one functional way.

 

Simple interpretations of such "knockout" research can frequently be misinterpreted due to genetic interactions ( epistasis ). The study of the molecular bases of biological phenomena, with an emphasis on molecular synthesis, modification, processes, and interactions, is known as molecular biology. Despite being oversimplified, the core tenet of molecular biology, that genetic material is translated into RNA and then into proteins, still offers a solid foundation for comprehending the subject. 

 

In light of recently discovered novel roles for RNA, this idea has been amended. The goal of chemical biology is to create new instruments based on tiny molecules that cause the least amount of disruption to biological systems while revealing intricate details about their operation. Additionally, chemical biology makes use of biological systems to produce unnatural hybrids of biomolecules and artificial devices ( such as empty viral capsids that can transport medication or gene therapy molecules ). 

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Chemical Biology - A Relook : 

Between the scientific disciplines of chemistry and biology is chemical biology. The study and modification of biological systems is done using chemical tools, analysis, and frequently tiny compounds made by synthetic chemistry. Chemical biology deals with chemistry applied to biology ( synthesis of biomolecules, simulation of biological systems, etc. ), as opposed to biochemistry, which studies the chemistry of biomolecules and regulates biochemical pathways inside and between cells. 

 

By analysing biological processes at the chemical level, several types of chemical biology try to provide biological questions with answers. Chemical biology investigates systems in vitro and in vivo with small molecules that have been specifically designed for a given purpose or identified on the basis of biochemical or cell - based screening, in contrast to research using biochemistry, genetics, or molecular biology, where mutagenesis can provide a new version of the organism, cell, or biomolecule of interest. 

 

One of several inter disciplinary disciplines with ambitions to describe scientific holism and a tendency to diverge from more traditional, reductionist fields is chemical biology. Chemical biology has roots in medical chemistry, supramolecular chemistry, bioorganic chemistry, pharmacology, genetics, biochemistry, and metabolic engineering. These origins are scientific, historical, and philosophical. Proteomics is being improved by chemical biologists through the creation of novel probes, chemical affinity tags, and enrichment techniques. 

 

A hurdle to their detection is created by the fact that samples for proteomics frequently comprise a large number of peptide sequences and that the sequence of interest may either be strongly represented or of low abundance. By selectively enriching a sample with affinity chromatography, chemical biology techniques can lower sample complexity. This entails aiming for a peptide with a distinctive characteristic, such as a biotin label or a post translational modification.

 

There are a variety of techniques that have been developed, such as the use of antibodies, lectins to capture glycoproteins, immobilised metal ions to capture phosphorylated peptides, and enzyme substrates to capture particular enzymes. Activity - based reagents have been created to label the enzymatically active version of proteins in order to study enzymatic activity as opposed to total protein. For instance, suicide inhibitors have been created from serine hydrolase and cysteine protease inhibitors.

 

Through direct targeting, this method improves the capacity for selective analysis of low abundance elements. Converted substrate can also be used to observe enzyme activity. Understanding the substrates of enzymes is crucial to understanding signal transduction pathways in cells and is one of the most challenging problems in proteomics. A technique has been devised that labels substrates with an artificial ATP analogue employing "analog - sensitive" kinases, allowing for easy visualisation and identification thanks to a distinctive handle. 

 

While glycans ( sugar polymers ) are not directly encoded from the genome and have fewer instruments for their research than DNA, RNA, and proteins, they are all genetically encoded. Chemical biologists are consequently actively researching the field of glycobiology. For instance, artificial sugars can be given to cells to allow researchers to study how they function. The research team of Carolyn Bertozzi has created strategies for site-specific molecular reactions at the surface of cells using synthetic sugars. 

 

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Chemical biologists performed high - throughput analyses of biological processes by automating the production of several small molecule libraries. Small compounds with antibiotic or chemo therapeutic activity might be discovered as a result of such research. These combinatorial chemistry techniques are the exact same ones used in pharmacology. Numerous research projects are devoted to using natural biomolecules to carry out biological functions or to enable novel chemical processes.

 

In this context, studies in chemical biology have demonstrated the potential of DNA as a template for synthetic chemistry, self-assembling proteins as a structural framework for novel materials, and in vitro evolution of RNA to develop novel catalytic functions. Additionally, two proteins are brought together inside of cells using heterobifunctional ( two - sided ) synthetic small molecules like dimerizers or PROTACs, which can artificially induce crucial new biological capabilities like targeted protein breakdown. 

 

As it enables the insertion of non - natural amino acids and the incorporation of "post translational modifications" like phosphorylation, glycosylation, acetylation, and even ubiquitination at the residue level, chemical synthesis of proteins is a useful technique in chemical biology. These skills are useful for chemical biologists because post-translational changes, which are well known to control the structure and function of proteins, can be utilised to investigate and modify the functionality of proteins.

 

Although strictly biological methods have been created to accomplish these goals, generating small quantities of the desired protein can frequently be accomplished through the chemical synthesis of peptides, which has a lower technical and practical barrier. Chemical biologists use the method of native chemical ligation to create polypeptide chains with a size similar to that of proteins from the tiny peptide fragments created via synthesis. A "native" amide bond is created by connecting a C - terminal thioester with an N - terminal cysteine residue.

 

Latter is done in a process known as native chemical ligation. Other methods for ligating peptide fragments that have been employed include expressed protein ligation, sulfurization / desulfurization approaches, and the use of removable thiol auxiliaries. These methods leverage the acyl transfer chemistry that was initially established with native chemical ligation. In order to attach a synthetic N - terminal peptide to the recombinantly produced C - terminal part, expressed protein ligation enables the bio technological installation of a C - terminal thioester employing inteins. 

 

The installation of a synthetic thiol moiety to perform the usual native chemical ligation chemistry is followed by the removal of the auxiliary or thiol in both sulfurization and desulfurization processes as well as the usage of removable thiol auxiliaries. The creation of novel peptides or proteins with a desired structure and chemical activity is one of the main objectives of protein engineering. The link between a protein's main sequence, structure, and function is not well understood, making it extremely difficult to develop new proteins with designed functions.

 

To create new proteins with a desired activity, directed evolution uses multiple cycles of genetic diversification followed by a screening or selection process to simulate natural selection in the lab. Large libraries of sequence variants can be created using a variety of techniques. The most popular ones are exposing DNA to UV rays or chemical mutagens, PCR mistakes, defective codons, and recombination. To locate mutants with a desired attribute, selection or screening approaches are utilised after a sizable library of variants has been produced.

 

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The FACS, mRNA display, phage display, and in vitro compartmentalization are typical selection and screening methods. The DNA sequence of any discovered beneficial variants is then amplified and put through additional rounds of diversification and selection. Frances Arnold received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for her work on the evolution of enzymes, while George Smith and Gregory Winter received it for their work on phage display, recognising the advancement of directed evolution techniques. 

 

The kinetics of the coupling process should be very favourable since the coupling of a probe to an interest molecule must take place within a reasonable amount of time. Given that click reactions are quick, spontaneous, picky, and high - yielding, click chemistry is ideally equipped to fill this gap. The most well - known "click reaction," a cycloaddition between an azide and an acyclic alkyne, is unfortunately copper - catalyzed, which presents a significant challenge for usage in vivo due to copper's toxicity.

 

Carolyn R. Bertozzi's lab used a cyclic alkyne to inject inherent strain into the alkyne species without the need for a catalyst. Azido - molecules are specifically and vigorously reactive with cyclooctyne. Through metabolic labelling, bioorthogonal reactivity is most frequently introduced into a target biomolecule. The only sources of nourishment available to cells are artificially altered analogues of common fuels, such glucose. Therefore, these changed biomolecules are similarly absorbed into the cells as the unaltered metabolites.

 

The system is then given a probe to see what happens to the changed biomolecules. Other functionalization techniques include creating phospholipids coupled to cyclooctynes and enzymatically introducing azides into proteins. Analogues of common fuels, like sugars, that have undergone synthetic modification are the only sources of nutrients available to cells in their environment. As a result, the cells incorporate these changed biomolecules in the same way they do the unaltered metabolites. To track the destiny of the modified biomolecules, a probe is then inserted into the system.

 

Azide insertion into proteins by enzymatic means and phospholipids linked to cyclooctynes are two other functionalization techniques. The development of sophisticated sequencing methods in the late 1990s made it possible for researchers to study communities of creatures' DNA in their natural habitats ( " eDNA " ) without having to cultivate distinct species in a lab. Due in part to an inadequate growing environment, a large variety of species that had not before been characterised might be studied using the metagenomic technique.

 

Soils, the ocean, the subsurface, hot springs, hydrothermal vents, polar ice caps, hypersaline habitats, and severe pH conditions are among the places where eDNA can be found. Researchers like Jo Handelsman, Jon Clardy, and Robert M. Goodman investigated metagenomic techniques towards the discovery of biologically active compounds like antibiotics, among the many other uses of metagenomics. Genes that generate tiny bioactive compounds have been found using functional or homology screening techniques.

 

Functional metagenomic studies are made to look for particular phenotypes that are connected to molecules that have particular properties. On the other side, homology metagenomic studies are made to look at genes in order to find conserved sequences that have previously been linked to the expression of physiologically active substances. The identification of new genes that encode physiologically active compounds is made possible by functional metagenomic research.

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These tests include pH assays, which can check for pH changes caused by newly synthesised molecules using a pH indicator on an agar plate, and top agar overlay assays, which use antibiotics to produce zones of growth inhibition against test bacteria. It has also been done using a technique called substrate - induced gene expression screening ( SIGEX ), which looks for the expression of genes that are stimulated by chemical substances.

 

The rapid finding of genes with homologous sequences to previously identified genes involved in the manufacture of physiologically active chemicals has been facilitated by homology - based metagenomic research. Once the genes are sequenced, researchers will be able to compare hundreds of bacterial genomes at once. Homology metagenomic studies have an advantage over functional metagenomic tests in that they do not need a host organism system to express the metagenomes. As a result, this method may reduce the time needed to analyse nonfunctional genomes.

 

Several novel proteins and tiny compounds were also found as a result of these. 20 additional lantibiotic cyclases were also discovered by an in silico analysis from the Global Ocean Metagenomic Survey. A crucial regulation step in all biological systems is the phosphate grouping of proteins post-translationally by kinases. Proteins can be activated or deactivated as a result of phosphorylation processes, such as phosphorylation by protein kinases or dephosphorylation by phosphatases.

 

Understanding the specifics of cellular processes requires the ability to deconstruct and investigate physiological pathways because these events have an effect on how these pathways are regulated. The enormous quantity of the phospho proteome, the transient nature of phosphorylation events, and associated physical constraints of traditional biological and biochemical approaches have all hampered the development of our understanding in this field. 

 

Chemical biologists have learned more about the consequences of protein phosphorylation thanks to the use of small molecule modulators of protein kinases. For instance, powerful inhibitors helpful in dissecting MAP kinase signalling networks include nonselective and selective kinase inhibitors, such as a class of pyridiny limidazole chemicals. These pyridiny limidazole substances work by selectively interacting with the ATP binding pocket. Although this strategy and similar strategies with minor alterations have shown to be successful in a number of situations. 

 

These compounds lack sufficient specificity for more widespread applications. Mechanism-based inhibitors, a different class of substances, integrate understanding of the kinase enzyme with previously used inhibitory motifs. For instance, a "bisubstrate analogue" binds to the specific kinase's conserved ATP binding pocket as well as a protein or peptide recognition site to limit kinase activity. ATP analogues were also used by researchers as chemical probes to investigate kinases and pinpoint their substrates. 

 

The creation of novel chemical techniques for include phospho mimetic amino acids in proteins has significantly advanced our understanding of how phosphorylation events affect proteins. Typically, phosphorylation events have been examined by replacing a known phosphorylation site ( serine, threonine, or tyrosine ) with an amino acid that cannot be phosphorylated, such as alanine. However, these methods have drawbacks, and chemical biologists have created more effective approaches to studying protein phosphorylation.

 

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Researchers are able to conduct in vivo studies to investigate the effects of phosphorylation by extending the time a phosphorylation event occurs while minimising the frequently unfavourable effects of mutations by incorporating phospho - serine, phospho - threonine, or analogous phosphonate mimics into native proteins. Successful methods for creating synthetic proteins with phospho mimetic molecules at either terminal include expressed protein ligation. Additionally, scientists have targeted regions within a peptide sequence for unnatural amino acid mutation. 

 

Chemical biology developments have also improved on traditional methods of kinase action imaging. The creation of peptide biosensors, which are peptides with integrated fluorophores, for instance, enhanced the temporal resolution of in vitro binding experiments. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer ( FRET ) is one of the best methods for examining how kinases function. Fluorescent proteins are connected to both a phosphoamino acid binding domain and a peptide that can be phosphorylated in order to use FRET for phosphorylation investigations. 

 

An alteration in conformation leads to a change in fluorescence when a substrate peptide is phosphorylated or dephosphorylated. To produce quantifiable data with exceptional temporal and spatial resolution, FRET has also been utilised in conjunction with Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy ( FLIM ) or fluorescently labelled antibodies and flow cytometry. Fluorescence techniques are frequently used by chemical biologists to investigate the functionalities of biological macromolecules.

 

Fluorescence has several advantages over other methods, including high sensitivity, non-intrusiveness, safe detection, and the capacity to alter the fluorescence signal. Green fluorescent protein ( GFP ), which Roger Y. Tsien and others discovered, hybrid systems, and quantum dots have all made it possible to more precisely determine the position and function of proteins in recent years. Small organic dyes, green fluorescent proteins, and quantum dots are the three main categories of fluorophores that are employed.

 

Small organic dyes, which are typically less than 1 kDa, have undergone modifications to boost their photostability and brightness while lowering self-quenching. High molar absorptivity, crisp wavelengths, and quantum yield are all characteristics of quantum dots. The use of immunolabeling is required since neither organic nor quantum dyes are capable of identifying the target protein without the help of antibodies. You can combine your protein of interest with fluorescent proteins, which are genetically encoded.

 

The tetracysteine biarsenical system is another method of genetically tagging that requires altering the targeted sequence to add four cysteines. This method binds membrane - permeable biarsenical molecules, the green and red dyes "FlAsH" and "ReAsH," with picomolar affinity. Although biarsenical tetracysteine and fluorescent proteins can both be expressed in living cells, doing so has serious drawbacks and runs the risk of losing their intended function. 

 

Protein tracking, conformational changes, protein - protein interactions, protein synthesis and turnover, and enzyme activity are just a few of the protein dynamics that have been studied using fluorescent approaches. Single - particle tracking, correlation spectroscopy, and photomarking techniques are three common methods for determining protein net redistribution and diffusion. The individual molecule needs to be light and scarce enough to be tracked from one video to the next in order to be used in single - particle tracking.

 

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The intensity variations brought on by fluorescent objects moving into and out of a focused laser's tiny volume are examined via correlation spectroscopy. Through the application of intense local illumination and a fluorescent protein, photomarking allows for the direct imaging of the fate of the marked molecule in a subcellular location. Using biotin - quantum dots in HeLa cells, Michalet and colleagues employed quantum dots for single - particle tracking.

 

Labelling the target protein with two fluorophores and placing them near together is one of the finest techniques to identify conformational changes in proteins. When one fluorophore is rotated in relation to the other, FRET will react to internal conformational changes. A quenched activity - based proteomics ( qABP ) is commonly used to visualise enzyme activity using fluorescence. If a qABP binds to the active site of the targeted enzyme, it will be possible to determine whether the enzyme is the source of the signal that appears once the quencher is released and the fluorescence is restored. 

A Look At Chemical Synthesis : 

Chemical synthesis, also known as chemical combination, is the artificial carrying out of chemical reactions to produce one or more compounds. Physical and chemical manipulations, typically involving one or more reactions, are used to achieve this. The procedure is dependable and reproducible in current laboratory settings. A chemical synthesis involves one or more substances ( referred to as reagents or reactants ) that, under specific circumstances, will undergo a change. A desired product can be formulated using a variety of reaction types.

 

For this, the chemicals must be mixed in a reaction vessel, such as a chemical reactor or a straight forward flask with a spherical bottom. To isolate the final product, many reactions necessitate some sort of processing ( "work - up" ) or purification step. The reaction yield is the total amount created during chemical synthesis. In a laboratory context, yields are often represented as a mass in grammes or as a percentage of the maximum theoretical quantity that might be generated using the limiting reagent.

 

An unintended chemical reaction that decreases the planned yield is known as a side reaction. Hermann Kolbe, a scientist, coined the term "synthesis" for the first time in a chemical context. Chemical synthesis employs a variety of methods that are more complex than merely changing a reactant A into a reaction product B directly. A chemical product is created through a sequence of distinct chemical processes, each with their own work-up, in a multistep synthesis. For instance, the synthesis of paracetamol in a lab can be broken down into three distinct steps. 

 

Multiple chemical transformations take place within a single reactant during cascade reactions, up to 11 different reactants can combine to form a single reaction product during multi-component reactions, and multiple chemical transformations take place within a single reactant during "telescopic synthesis" without the separation of intermediates. The creation of organic compounds is the focus of the particular branch of chemical synthesis known as "organic synthesis."

 

Multiple steps may be needed in order to synthesise the desired product for the whole synthesis of a complex product, which would take a lot of time. Expertise in organic synthesis is highly valued among chemists, and chemists like Robert Burns Woodward have received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for their work synthesising particularly important or challenging chemicals. It is regarded as a purely synthetic process when a chemical synthesis begins with simple laboratory chemicals.

 

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The synthesis is referred to as semisynthetic if it starts with an isolated plant or animal product before creating new molecules. Compounds with a sizable non - organic component are prepared via inorganic synthesis and organo metallic synthesis. The process of making potassium tetra chloroplatinate into the anti - cancer medication cisplatin serves as an example. 

What is Chemical Engineering ? 

Chemical engineering is a branch of engineering that focuses on strategies for increasing production as well as the operation and design of chemical plants. Chemical engineers create cost-effective industrial processes to transform raw materials into usable goods. To effectively use, create, design, transport, and change energy and materials, chemical engineers use ideas from physics, arithmetic, biology, and economics. Chemical engineers can work on everything.

 

It is from large - scale industrial processes that transform chemicals, raw materials, live cells, microbes, and energy into useful forms and products to the use of nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the laboratory. In addition to safety and hazard assessments, process design and analysis, modelling, control engineering, chemical reaction engineering, nuclear engineering, biological engineering, construction specifications, and operating instructions, chemical engineers are involved in many other aspects of plant design and operation. 

 

Chemical engineering or process engineering degrees are often held by chemical engineers. Engineers in practise may be recognised members of a professional organisation and hold a professional qualification. These organisations include the American Institute of Chemical Engineers ( AIChE ) and the Institution of Chemical Engineers ( IChemE ). The Indian Institute of Chemical Engineers (IIChE), which also hosts joint events with AIChE and ICheE, is the analogous organisation in India. Chemical engineering degrees are, in varying degrees, directly related to all other engineering specialties. 

 

James F. Donnelly is credited in a 1996 article for suggesting an 1839 allusion to chemical engineering in connection with the creation of sulfuric acid. However, an English consultant named George E. Davis was given credit for coming up with the word in the same report. Davis also attempted to organise a Society of Chemical Engineering, but it was the Society of Chemical Industry that was established in 1881, with Davis serving as its first secretary. The term's first use is dated to 1890 according to The History of Science in the United States: An Encyclopaedia.

 

After 1850, the term "chemical engineering," which refers to the employment of mechanical machinery in the chemical industry, entered the English language. Chemical engineers were widely known in both Britain and the United States by the year 1910. Unit operations alone were found to be insufficient for the development of chemical reactors in the 1940s. Until the 1960s, unit operations dominated chemical engineering curricula in both Britain and the United States, but then transport phenomena began to gain more attention.

 

A "second paradigm" was defined along with other unique ideas like process systems engineering ( PSE ). Chemical engineering was given an analytical approach by transport phenomena, whereas PSE concentrated on its synthetic components, such as control systems and process design. The petrochemical industry was primarily responsible for the advances in chemical engineering that occurred before and after World War II. However, there were also developments in other areas. 

 

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For instance, in the 1940s, advances in biochemical engineering found use in the pharmaceutical sector and enabled the mass manufacture of several antibiotics, including penicillin and streptomycin. Meanwhile, the "age of plastics" was made possible by advancements in polymer chemistry in the 1950s. During this time, issues relating to the safety and environmental effects of large - scale chemical manufacturing facilities were also brought up. The 1962 book Silent Spring warned readers about the negative consequences of the strong insecticide DDT.

 

In the UK's Flixborough catastrophe of 1974, three surrounding communities and a chemical facility were damaged in addition to 28 fatalities. India's Bhopal catastrophe in 1984 claimed over 4,000 lives. As industrial safety and environmental protection gained more attention, these and other incidents had an impact on the industry's reputation. In response, the IChemE mandated that any degree programme it approved after 1982 have a safety component.

 

In a number of nations, including France, Germany, and the United States, legislation and oversight organisations were put in place by the 1970s. Process safety, which is the systematic application of safety concepts to chemical and other process plants, became recognised as a distinct subject throughout time. Plant management and design have benefited from advances in computer science, which made calculations and drawings that once required manual labour much simpler. 

 

A significant advancement in chemical engineering as well as genetic engineering and genomics is the conclusion of the Human Genome Project. DNA sequences were produced in vast quantities using chemical engineering methods. The use of various concepts is necessary for chemical engineering. The following are the main ideas discussed. The first one is plant design and construction. The design of pilot plants, new plants, or modified plants involves developing plans, specifications, and economic evaluations.

 

Design engineers frequently serve as consultants, creating plants that satisfy the requirements of customers. Numerous considerations, such as funding, governmental guidelines, and safety standards, have an impact on design. The processes, materials, and equipment that a factory uses are constrained by these considerations. Depending on the extent of the investment, project managers and engineers coordinate the building of the plant. A chemical engineer may work as a project engineer full - time, part - time, or as a consultant to the project team.

 

All of this requires additional training and professional abilities. Project engineering education, which can be acquired through specialised training, as electives, or from graduate programmes, is typically not stressed in the education of chemical engineering graduates from Baccalaureate programmes authorised by ABET in the USA. The majority of chemical engineers are employed in project engineering positions. Process design and analysis is the second. An individual chemical engineering process has a physical phase known as a unit operation.

 

Unit operations are used to prepare reactants, purify and separate its products, recycle old reactants, and regulate energy. Unit operations are used to prepare reactants, purify and separate its products, recycle unused reactants, and regulate energy transfer in reactors. These processes include crystallisation, filtering, drying, and evaporation. A unit process, on the other hand, is a unit operation's chemical counterpart. Unit processes make up a process operation along with unit operations.

 

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The conversion of materials through biochemical, thermochemical, and other processes is a component of unit processes including nitration, hydrogenation, and oxidation. Process engineers are the chemical engineers in charge of this. Definitions of equipment kinds, sizes, connections, and building materials are necessary for process design. A Process Flow Diagram, which is utilised to manage the capacity and dependability of a new or existing chemical factory, is frequently printed with specifics. 

 

Chemical engineers' first college degree education The focus of three or four years of study is on the concepts and methods of process design. The efficiency of current chemical plants is assessed using the same techniques, and suggestions for improvements are made. The third is the phenomenon of transport. For many industrial applications, modelling and analysis of transport phenomena are crucial. Fluid dynamics, heat transfer, and mass transfer are all types of transport phenomena.

 

These are primarily controlled by momentum transfer, energy transfer, and the transport of chemical species, respectively. Models frequently take into account distinct concerns for occurrences at the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular levels. Therefore, knowledge in applied mathematics is necessary for modelling transport processes. Chemical engineers "develop efficient ways of utilising resources, including energy." In a large - scale, industrial context, chemical engineers employ chemistry and engineering.

 

This is to transform raw materials into useable products, such as pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals, and polymers. They are also engaged in research and waste management. Computers could be heavily used in both the applied and research aspects. Chemical engineers may work in business or academic research, where they are tasked with planning and carrying out experiments using scaled - up chemical reactions. It is to develop more effective and secure manufacturing, pollution - control, and resource - conservation techniques.

 

As a project engineer, they might be involved in planning and building factories. As project engineers, chemical engineers utilise their expertise to choose the best production techniques and plant machinery in order to minimise costs and maximise safety and profitability. Chemical engineering project managers may take on full - time or consultancy responsibilities in equipment upgrades, troubleshooting, and day - to - day operations following the building of a facility. 

 

Let's learn about Click Chemistry :

Click chemistry is a group of straightforward, atom - efficient reactions that are frequently utilised in chemical synthesis to combine two preferred molecular entities. The term "click chemistry" refers to a method of producing items that mimics natural processes that also produce compounds by fusing small modular parts together. Click reactions link a biomolecule and a reporter molecule in numerous applications. The concept of a "click" reaction has been employed in chemo proteomic, pharmacological, biomimetic, and molecular machinery applications. 

 

Therefore click chemistry is not just used in biological contexts. They have been particularly effective in the identification, localization, and classification of biomolecules, though. Click reactions take place in a single vessel, are unaffected by water, produce few and harmless byproducts, and are "spring-loaded", characterized by a strong thermodynamic driving force that propels it swiftly and irreversibly to a high yield of a single reaction product with a high degree of reaction specificity ( in some cases, with both regio- and stereo - specificity ).

 

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Because of these characteristics, click reactions are especially well suited to the challenge of locating and separating molecules in intricate biological settings. Products must, therefore, be physiologically stable in such conditions, and any byproducts must not be harmful ( for in vivo systems ). Researchers have created bio orthogonal processes that are precise and controllable, which has increased the likelihood of achieving specific targets in intricate cell lysates. 

 

Recently, click chemistry has been modified for application in living cells, for instance, utilising tiny molecule probes that use click reactions to locate and bind to their targets. Click reactions have already shown promise in a new generation of pulldown experiments ( in which specific targets can be isolated using, for example, reporter molecules that bind to a certain column ) and fluorescence spectrometry ( in which the fluorophore is attached to a target of interest and the target is quantified or located ).

 

This is true despite difficulties with cell permeability, bio orthogonality, background labelling, and reaction efficiency. More recently, innovative techniques have been employed to attach click reaction partners to and within biomolecules, such as the insertion of reactive amino acids into proteins and the alteration of nucleotides. These methods are a subset of chemical biology, a discipline in which click chemistry, through the deliberate and explicit coupling of modular units to distinct goals, plays a key role. 

 

K. Barry Sharpless originally used the phrase "click chemistry" in 1998, and he, Hartmuth C. Kolb, and M.G. Finn of The Scripps Research Institute first thoroughly defined it in 2001. Carolyn R. Bertozzi, Morten P. Meldal, and K. Barry Sharpless shared the 2022 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for the development of click chemistry and bio orthogonal chemistry". Click chemistry is a technique for bioconjugating a probe or substrate of interest to a particular biomolecule.

 

Click chemistry has become a very potent technique for detecting, localising, and characterising both old and new biomolecules due to the ability of attaching fluorophores and other reporter molecules. The expression of a reporter on the same open reading frame as a target biomolecule was one of the earliest and most crucial bioconjugation techniques. Notably, the N- or C - terminus of many proteins is where green fluorescent protein ( GFP ) was first expressed ( and still is ). However, there are a number of challenges with this strategy.

 

For instance, the folding of the target protein can frequently be influenced by GFP, a relatively big unit. Furthermore, the GFP adduct can influence the targeting and production of the desired protein by being expressed at either terminal. Finally, this approach limits the attachment of GFP to proteins and excludes post - translational attachment to other significant biomolecular classes ( nucleic acids, lipids, carbohydrates, etc. ). Chemists have chosen to go forward by locating pairs of bio orthogonal reaction partners.

 

This is in order to get over these difficulties and enable the use of tiny foreign molecules as biomolecular probes. One of these probes can have a fluorophore attached to it so that, like GFP does when the target is expressed with it, a fluorescence signal will be produced when the reporter molecule binds to the target. Limitations caused by the probe's target's chemistry are now apparent. Click chemistry must operate at or close to biological conditions, produce few and ( ideally ) non - toxic byproducts, have ( preferably ) single and stable products at the same conditions.

 

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Also it ought to move swiftly to high yield in one pot in order for this technique to be helpful in biological systems. Existing processes, like the Huisgen 1,3 - dipolar cycloaddition and Staudinger ligation, have been adjusted and optimised for these conditions. Today's research in the field focuses on a variety of topics. These inclue expanding the techniques used to incorporate reaction partners into living systems, engineering novel reaction partners, and creating applications for bio conjugation.

 

All this in addition to understanding and creating new reactions and repurposing and re - understanding those that already exist. Shasqi is a biotech business that uses human click chemistry. A reaction must meet the following requirements in order to be categorised as a click reaction. 
High chemical yields, regio- and stereo specificity, modularity, insensitivity to solvent conditions, insensitivity to oxygen and water, and a strong thermodynamic driving force more than 20 kcal per mol to favour a reaction with a single reaction product.

 

A reactant becomes "spring-loaded" by a separate exothermic process. Preferably, the procedure would go as follows. Simple reaction conditions, the use of widely available starting materials and reagents, the avoidance of solvents or the use of harmless or easily removed solvents ( ideally water ), the provision of straight forward product isolation by non - chromatographic methods ( crystallisation or distillation ), and great atom economy are all desirable. 

 

Even if measurable and objective criteria could be agreed upon, it is doubtful that any reaction will be ideal for every circumstance and application because many click chemistry criteria are subjective. However, some responses have been found to reflect the idea more accurately than others. One catalytic copper atom was part of the first reaction mechanism that was put out, however isotopic, kinetic, and other investigations have suggested that a dicopper mechanism may be more appropriate.

 

Even though this reaction works as it should under biological conditions, copper in this dose range is harmful to cells. The use of water - soluble ligands on the copper to improve cell penetration of the catalyst and thereby reduce the dosage required, or the use of chelating ligands to further increase the effective concentration of Cu( I ) and thereby reduce the actual dosage, have both been proposed as solutions to this issue. Although Meldal and colleagues published the Cu( I ) - catalyzed variation initially.

 

It was for the synthesis of peptido triazoles on solid support, they needed more time to fully understand the reaction and were overtaken by the more well - known Sharpless. The fact that Meldal and colleagues did not designate this type of reaction as "click chemistry" is thought to have contributed to the fact that the mainstream chemical society generally disregarded their discovery. For those organic synthesis endeavours that depend on the formation of covalent connections between various building blocks, it offers "an unprecedented level of selectivity, reliability, and scope."

 

This was according to independent descriptions by Sharpless and Fokin. The Jia and Fokin groups published a comparable RuAAC reaction in 2005 that is catalysed by ruthenium rather than copper and enables the selective synthesis of 1, 5 - isomers. To get around the CuAAC reaction's cytotoxicity, the Bertozzi group improved one of Huisgen's copper - free click reactions. Rather than employing Cu( I ) to activate the alkyne, the alkyne is placed into a strained difluoro octyne ( DIFO ).

 

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This is where the electron - withdrawing, propargylic, gem - fluorines work in tandem with the ring strain to significantly destabilise the alkyne. This destabilisation intensifies the reaction's driving power and the cycloalkyne's need to unwind its ring tension. Similar to the Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, this reaction proceeds as a concerted [3+2] cyclo addition. On the cyclo octyne, substitutes other than fluorines are also permitted, such as benzene rings. 

 

Even though the reaction rate is a little bit slower than that of the CuAAC, it has been successfully utilised to search for azides in live systems. Additionally, the development of probes for this reaction has not progressed as quickly as it has for other reactions since the synthesis of cyclooctynes frequently results in low yield. However, cyclooctyne derivatives like DIFO, DIBO, and BARAC have all been utilised successfully in the SPAAC reaction to detect azides in biological systems. A potent tool for determining the cellular localisation of tiny compounds is Click Chemistry.

 

Understanding a small molecule's location within a cell provides profound understanding of its mode of operation. Numerous studies have employed this method, and findings from these studies include the finding that salinomycin localises to lysosomes in cancer stem cells to start ferroptosis and that metformin derivatives accumulate in mitochondria to chelate copper( II ), affecting metabolism and epigenetic changes in inflammatory macrophages later on. The use of click chemistry in business is enormous.

 

Rhodamine, a fluorophore, has been coupled to norbornene, and in living systems, it has interacted with tetrazine. In other instances, the selection of these proteins in cell lysates was made possible via SPAAC between a fluorophores modified with cyclooctyne and proteins that were azide - tagged. The following more applications are included.

 

Triazole ligation to modify DNA and nucleotides, two - dimensional gel electrophoresis separation, preparative organic synthesis of 1,4- substituted triazoles, peptide function modification, natural product discovery, drug discovery, macrocyclizations using Cu( I ) catalysed triazole couplings, supramolecular chemistry: calixarenes, rotaxanes, and catenanes, dendrimer design, and carbo. 

 

By accelerating each reaction in a multistep synthesis and making it predictable and economical, click chemistry has accelerated the discovery of novel drugs in conjunction with combinatorial chemistry, high - throughput screening, and constructing chemical libraries.

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What is Supra Molecular Chemistry ? 

The area of chemistry that deals with chemical systems made up of a specific number of molecules is known as supramolecular chemistry. As long as the electronic coupling strength stays low in relation to the energy parameters of the component, the forces that are responsible for the spatial organisation of the system can range in strength from mild intermolecular interactions, electrostatic charge, or hydrogen bonds to strong covalent bonds.

 

Supramolecular chemistry studies the weaker and reversible non - covalent interactions between molecules while conventional chemistry focuses on the covalent connection. Hydrogen bonds, metal coordination, hydrophobic forces, van der Waals forces, pi - pi interactions, and electrostatic effects are a few examples of these forces. Molecular self - assembly, molecular folding, molecular recognition, host - guest chemistry, mechanically interlocked molecular architectures, and dynamic covalent chemistry are among the significant ideas advanced by supramolecular chemistry. 

Understanding non - covalent interactions is essential for many biological processes since they depend on them for both structure and function. Supramolecular research frequently draws its inspiration from biological systems. Johannes Diderik van der Waals initially proposed the idea of intermolecular forces in 1873. However, the philosophical foundations of supramolecular chemistry were developed by Nobel laureate Hermann Emil Fischer.

 

Fischer proposed the "lock and key" model of molecular recognition and host - guest chemistry in 1894 to describe how enzymes and substrates interact. With the description of the hydrogen bond by Latimer and Rodebush in 1920, non-covalent bonds were gradually recognised in more depth in the beginning of the twentieth century. The application of these ideas resulted in a greater comprehension of biological processes and protein structure. 

 

For instance, recognising that there are two distinct strands of nucleotides coupled through hydrogen bonds was a significant discovery that led to the clarification of the double helix structure of DNA. Non - covalent bonds are necessary for replication because they enable strand separation and the use of old double stranded DNA as a template. The study of synthetic structures based on non-covalent interactions, such as micelles and micro emulsions, by chemists started at the same time. 

 

Chemists were eventually able to use these ideas to apply to synthetic systems. Charles J. Pedersen's creation of the crown ethers in the 1960s marked the turning point. Following this work, other scientists like Donald J. Cram, Jean - Marie Lehn, and Fritz Vögtle got involved in the synthesis of shape- and ion - selective receptors, and research in the field accelerated throughout the 1980s with the emergence of ideas like mechanically interlocked molecular architectures. 

The 1987 Nobel Prize for Chemistry, given to Donald J. Cram, Jean - Marie Lehn, and Charles J. Pedersen in appreciation of their contributions in this field, established the significance of supramolecular chemistry. One significant advancement was the creation of selective "host - guest" complexes, in which a host molecule recognises and specifically binds a certain guest. Supramolecular chemistry advanced even further in the 1990s thanks to the work of scientists like Itamar Willner.

 

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Latter created sensors and techniques for bridging electrical and biological systems, and James Fraser Stoddart, who created molecular machinery and extremely complex self - assembled structures. In order to boost usefulness, electrochemical and photochemical motifs were incorporated into supra molecular systems at this time. Additionally, research into synthetic self - replicating systems and the development of molecular information processing devices started during this time.

 

Building blocks including fullerenes, nanoparticles, and dendrimers started to appear in synthetic systems, which had a significant impact on the field due to the growing science of nanotechnology. Non - covalent interactions between two chemical moieties, known as a host and a guest, generate supramolecular complexes. Hydrogen bonds are widely used to hold interacting species together. The term eliminates ion pairs, which are compounds generated by electrostatic interactions. 

 

The molecular environment in which a supramolecular system operates and stabilises is equally critical. Many solvents have significant hydrogen bonding, electrostatic, and charge - transfer capabilities, allowing them to become involved in intricate equilibria with the system and even entirely break complexes. As a result, the selection of solvent can be essential. The building of systems without guidance or control from an outside source ( other than to supply a suitable environment ) is referred to as molecular self - assembly.

Non - covalent interactions are used to direct the molecules' assembly. Intermolecular self - assembly ( to produce a supramolecular assembly ) and intramolecular self - assembly ( or folding as evidenced by foldamers and polypeptides ) are two types of self - assembly. Molecular self - assembly also allows for the creation of bigger structures such as micelles, membranes, vesicles, and liquid crystals, and thus is crucial in crystal engineering. 

The particular binding of a guest molecule to a complementary host molecule to produce a host - guest complex is referred to as molecular recognition. The distinction between which species is the "host" and which is the "guest" is frequently arbitrary. Non - covalent interactions allow the molecules to recognise one another. The development of molecular sensors and catalysis are two key applications of this field. Molecular recognition and self - assembly can be utilised with reactive species to pre - organize a system for a chemical reaction ( to establish one or more covalent bonds ).

 

It is a subset of supramolecular catalysis. Non - covalent bonds between the reactants and a "template" keep the reactive sites of the reactants near together, aiding the desired chemistry. This approach is especially beneficial in circumstances where the desired reaction conformation is thermo - dynamically or kinetically implausible, such as when building huge macrocycles. This pre - organization also serves other functions, such as minimising side reactions, decreasing the activation energy of the reaction, and providing desirable stereochemistry. 

 

Following the reaction, the template may be left in place, forcibly removed, or "automatically" decomplexed due to the varied recognition properties of the reaction product. The template could be as simple as a single metal ion or quite complicated. Mechanically interlocked molecular structures are made up of molecules that are only linked by their topology. Some non - covalent interactions may occur between the various components ( typically those used in the system's development ), but covalent bonds do not.

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Supramolecular chemistry, namely template - directed synthesis, is critical to the effective synthesis of the molecules. Catenanes, rotaxanes, molecular knots, molecular Borromean rings, and ravels are examples of mechanically linked molecular architectures. Covalent bonds are broken and created in a reversible reaction under thermodynamic control in dynamic covalent chemistry. While covalent bonds are important in the process, non - covalent forces lead the system to generate the lowest energy structures. 

 

Many synthetic supramolecular systems are created to mimic biological system functions. These biomimetic designs can be utilised to learn about the biological model as well as its synthetic implementation. Photo electrochemical systems, catalytic systems, protein design, and self - replication are among examples. The method of creating a host from tiny molecules utilising an appropriate molecular species as a template is referred to as molecular imprinting. The template is removed after building, leaving only the host.

 

The template for host creation may differ slightly from the guest to which the finished host binds. Imprinting uses only steric interactions in its most basic form, while more complicated systems use hydrogen bonding and other interactions to improve binding strength and specificity. Molecular machines are molecules or molecular assemblies that can execute operations such as linear or rotational movement, switching, and trapping. These devices exist at the intersection of supramolecular chemistry and nanotechnology. 

 

Prototypes have been developed employing supramolecular ideas. The 2016 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was shared by Jean - Pierre Sauvage, Sir J. Fraser Stoddart, and Bernard L. Feringa for the "design and synthesis of molecular machines." Supramolecular systems are rarely built from scratch. Rather, chemists have a variety of well - studied structural and functional building blocks from which to construct bigger functional designs. Many of them exist as entire families of comparable units from which the analogue with the exact needed attributes can be picked. 

 

Supramolecular chemistry has various applications, including the production of novel materials via molecular self - assembly techniques. Because large structures are formed of small molecules that require fewer steps to synthesise, they can be easily accessed utilising bottom - up synthesis. As a result, the majority of bottom - up approaches to nanotechnology are based on supramolecular chemistry. Molecular recognition is at the heart of many smart materials. 

 

The creation and understanding of catalysts and catalysis is a major application of supramolecular chemistry. Non covalent contacts are particularly significant in catalysis, binding reactants into reaction - friendly conformations and decreasing reaction transition state energy. Supramolecular catalysis is a subset of template - directed synthesis. In catalysis, encapsulation systems such as micelles, dendrimers, and cavitands are used to generate micro environments suited for reactions ( or steps in processes ) to progress that are not possible to employ on a macroscopic scale. 

 

Supramolecular chemistry - based design has resulted in several applications in the development of functional biomaterials and medicines. Supramolecular biomaterials enable the creation of a variety of modular and generalizable platforms with variable mechanical, chemical, and biological properties. Systems based on supramolecular peptide assembly, host - guest macrocycles, high - affinity hydrogen bonding, and metal - ligand interactions are examples. 

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Artificial ion channels for the passage of sodium and potassium ions into and out of cells have been created using a supramolecular technique. Understanding the interactions at a drug binding site is also useful in developing new medicinal therapy. Supramolecular chemistry, which enables encapsulation and selective release mechanisms, has also produced significant improvements in the field of drug delivery. Furthermore, supramolecular systems have been created to disrupt protein - protein interactions that are critical to cellular function. 

 

Supramolecular chemistry has been utilised to demonstrate computation functions at the molecular level. Many times, photonic or chemical signals have been used in these components, but electrical interfacing of these units has also been demonstrated using supramolecular signal transduction devices. Molecular switches including photochromic and photo isomerizable units, electrochromic and redox - switchable units, and even molecular motion have been used to store data. Conceptual synthetic molecular logic gates have been developed.

 

Let's dive into Organic Chemistry :

Semi - synthetic DNA computers have performed full - scale computations. Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies the structure, characteristics, and reactivity of organic molecules and organic materials, which are matter in various forms that contain carbon atoms. Structure research determines their structural formula. Physical and chemical qualities are studied, as well as chemical reactivity to better understand their behaviour. The study of organic reactions covers the chemical synthesis of natural products, medicines, and polymers.

 

It also includes the laboratory and theoretical ( in silico ) research of individual organic molecules. Organic chemistry studies hydrocarbons ( molecules containing solely carbon and hydrogen ) as well as carbon - based compounds incorporating other elements, particularly oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus ( present in many biochemicals ), and halogens. The study of carbon - metal bonding is known as organometallic chemistry. Furthermore, current research focuses on organic chemistry.

 

It includes various organometallics, particularly the transition metals zinc, copper, palladium, nickel, cobalt, titanium, and chromium. Organic compounds are the foundation of all life on Earth and make up the vast majority of known substances. Carbon's bonding patterns, with its four valences, formal single, double, and triple bonds, as well as structures with delocalized electrons, create a structurally rich array of organic compounds with a wide range of applications.

 

They are the foundation or ingredients of many commercial items, including pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals, and agrichemicals, as well as products derived from them, such as lubricants, solvents, polymers, fuels, and explosives. Organic chemistry is related to organometallic chemistry and biochemistry, as well as pharmaceutical chemistry, polymer chemistry, and materials science. Prior to the 18th century, chemists widely assumed that substances derived from living beings possessed a vital force that separated them from inorganic chemicals.

 

Organic matter was endowed with a "vital force" according to the concept of vitalism ( vital force theory ). Some of the first systematic investigations of organic compounds were published in the first half of the nineteenth century. Around 1816, Michel Chevreul began researching soaps derived from various fats and alkalis. He isolated the acids that, when combined with alkali, made soap. Because these were all distinct compounds, he demonstrated a chemical change in various fats.

 

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Latter generally came from organic sources that might result in the formation of new compounds without the use of "vital force." In what is now known as the Wöhler synthesis, Friedrich Wöhler created the organic molecule urea ( carbamide ), a component of urine, from inorganic starting ingredients ( the salts potassium cyanate and ammonium sulphate ) in 1828. Although Wöhler was hesitant to claim he had disproved vitalism, this was the first occasion in laboratory history that a chemical assumed to be organic was synthesised.

 

It was without the use of biological ( organic ) starting elements. The episode is now widely regarded as disproving the idea of vitalism. While attempting to create quinine in 1856, William Henry Perkin accidentally made the organic colour now known as Perkin's mauve. His discovery, which was widely publicised because to its commercial success, considerably stimulated interest in organic chemistry. The concept of chemical structure, discovered separately in 1858 by both Friedrich August Kekulé and Archibald Scott Couper, was a major discovery for organic chemistry.

 

Both researchers proposed that tetravalent carbon atoms might connect to form a carbon lattice, and that the intricate patterns of atomic bonding could be observed by competent interpretation of relevant chemical reactions. The pharmaceutical industry began in the latter decade of the nineteenth century, when the German corporation Bayer produced acetylsalicylic acid, better known as aspirin. By 1910, Paul Ehrlich and his laboratory group had developed arsenic - based arsphenamine ( Salvarsan ) as the first effective medicinal treatment for syphilis. 

 

Thus, launching the medical practise of chemotherapy. Ehrlich popularised the concepts of "magic bullet" medications and systematically enhancing medicinal therapy. His laboratory made significant contributions to the development of diphtheria antiserum and the standardisation of therapeutic serums. Early instances of organic reactions and applications were frequently discovered through a combination of chance and planning for unexpected observations. However, systematic investigations of organic compounds began in the later half of the nineteenth century.

 

The evolution of synthetic indigo is instructive. The synthetic methods developed by Adolf von Baeyer reduced the production of indigo from plant sources from 19,000 tonnes in 1897 to 1,000 tonnes by 1914. 17,000 tonnes of synthetic indigo were generated from petrochemicals in 2002. Polymers and enzymes were discovered to be huge organic molecules in the early twentieth century, and petroleum was discovered to be of biological origin. Total synthesis refers to the multiple - step synthesis of complex chemical molecules. 

 

The complexity of total synthesis of complicated natural substances grew to glucose and terpineol. Cholesterol - related substances, for example, have enabled the synthesis of complex human hormones and their modified derivatives. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, the complexity of complete syntheses has grown to include substances of high complexity, such as lysergic acid and vitamin B12. The discovery of petroleum and the growth of the petrochemical industry fueled the growth of organic chemistry.

 

Individual petroleum compounds were converted into types of compounds via various chemical processes, resulting in organic reactions that enabled a wide range of industrial and commercial products such as plastics, synthetic rubber, organic adhesives, and various property - modifying petroleum additives and catalysts, among many others. Because the bulk of chemical molecules found in biological organisms are carbon compounds, the relationship between organic chemistry and biochemistry is so tight that biochemistry may be considered a subset of organic chemistry. 

 

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Although the history of biochemistry may be traced back four centuries, essential understanding of the area only began to emerge in the late nineteenth century, and the word "biochemistry" was coined around the turn of the twentieth century. As evidenced by an examination of abstraction and indexing services such as BIOSIS Previews and Biological Abstracts, which began in the 1920s as a single annual volume but has grown so drastically that by the end of the twentieth century it was only available to the everyday user as an online electronic database. 

 

Research in the field increased throughout the twentieth century, with no indication of a slackening in the rate of increase. Because organic molecules are frequently found in mixtures, a range of techniques for determining purity have been developed. Chromatography techniques, such as HPLC and gas chromatography, are particularly essential for this application. Distillation, crystallisation, evaporation, magnetic separation, and solvent extraction are examples of traditional separation procedures. 

 

Organic compounds were previously identified using a range of chemical tests known as "wet methods," but such tests have been largely supplanted by spectroscopic or other computer - intensive methods of analysis. The primary analytical approaches are listed below in approximate order of utility. The most frequent technique is nuclear magnetic resonance ( NMR ) spectroscopy, which allows for the complete assignment of atom connectivity and even stereochemistry via correlation spectroscopy. 

 

The primary component atoms of organic chemistry, hydrogen and carbon, have naturally occurring NMR - responsive isotopes, 1H and 13C, respectively. Elemental analysis: A destructive approach for determining a molecule's elemental composition. Mass spectrometry determines a compound's molecular weight and structure based on fragmentation patterns. High - resolution mass spectrometry can usually identify a compound's specific formula and is employed instead of elemental analysis.

 

Previously, mass spectrometry was limited to neutral compounds with significant volatility, but modern ionisation techniques now allow the "mass spec" of nearly any organic chemical to be obtained. When a single crystal of a material is available, crystallography can be used to determine molecular geometry. Because of the high efficiency of the hardware and software, a structure can be determined within hours after receiving a suitable crystal. 

 

Traditional spectroscopic approaches, including as infrared spectroscopy, optical rotation, and UV or VIS spectroscopy, provide nonspecific structural information but are still used for specialised applications. Refractive index and density can also be useful in identifying substances. Physical properties of organic compounds of interest often contain both quantitative and qualitative characteristics. A melting point, boiling point, solubility, and index of refraction are all examples of quantitative data.

 

The qualities of odour, consistency, and colour are examples of qualitative attributes. Organic compounds usually melt and many of them boil. In contrast, while most inorganic materials can be melted, many do not boil and instead deteriorate. Previously, the melting point ( m.p. ) and boiling point ( b.p. ) of organic compounds supplied critical information about their purity and identification. The melting and boiling temperatures of molecules are related to their polarity and molecular weight.

 

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Some organic molecules, particularly those with symmetrical structures, are sublime. Para - dichloro benzene, the odorous element of modern mothballs, is a well - known example of a sublimable organic compound. Although there are rare exceptions, organic molecules are often not particularly stable at temperatures exceeding 300 °C. Neutral organic substances are hydrophobic, which means they are less soluble in water than in organic solvents.

 

Organic molecules with ionizable groups, as well as low molecular weight alcohols, amines, and carboxylic acids where hydrogen bonding occurs, are exceptions. Otherwise, organic molecules prefer to dissolve in organic solvents. Solubility varies greatly depending on the organic solute and organic solvent. Depending on the application, various specialised properties of molecular crystals and organic polymers with conjugated systems are of interest, such as thermo - mechanical and electro - mechanical properties.

 

Latter are like piezoelectricity, electrical conductivity ( related to conductive polymers and organic semiconductors ), and electro - optical ( e.g. non - linear optics ). For historical reasons, such qualities are primarily the focus of polymer research and materials science. Organic compound names are either systematic, following a set of principles logically, or nonsystematic, following multiple traditions. Specifications from IUPAC govern systematic nomenclature. The name of a parent structure within the molecule of interest is the starting point for systematic nomenclature.

 

This parent name is then updated with prefixes, suffixes, and digits to represent the structure unambiguously. Given that millions of chemical compounds are known, strict adherence to systematic naming can be time - consuming. As a result, IUPAC recommendations are followed more carefully for simple chemicals but not for complicated molecules. To use systematic naming, one must be familiar with the parent structures' structures and names. 

 

Unsubstituted hydrocarbons, heterocycles, and mono functionalized derivatives of these are examples of parent structures. Nonsystematic nomenclature is more straightforward and clear, at least to organic chemists. Nonsystematic names do not indicate the compound's structure. They are common in complex compounds, which include the vast majority of natural products. With the rising usage of computing, various naming systems that are designed to be interpreted by machines have emerged. SMILES and InChI are two widely used formats. 

 

Drawings or structural formulas, or mixtures of drawings and chemical symbols, are more widely used to describe organic molecules. The line - angle formula is straight forward and unambiguous. In this system, each line's endpoints and intersections indicate one carbon, and hydrogen atoms can be explicitly notated or presumed to be present as implied by tetravalent carbon. By 1880, there had been an increase in the number of chemical compounds discovered, aided by new synthetic and analytical techniques.

 

Because of the lack of convention, it was conceivable to have many names for the same substance, which Grignard defined as "chaos le plus complet" ( total chaos ). This resulted in the establishment of the Geneva rules in 1892. Functional groups are important in organic chemistry because they can be used to classify structures and predict attributes. A functional group is a molecular module, and its reactivity is considered to be the same in a variety of compounds, within limits.

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The chemical and physical properties of organic molecules can be significantly influenced by functional groups. Functional groupings are used to categorise molecules. Alcohols, for example, all have the C - O - H component. All alcohols are slightly hydrophilic, form esters, and can be converted to the equivalent halides. The majority of functional groups contain heteroatoms ( atoms other than C and H ). Alcohols, carboxylic acids, amines, and other functional groups are used to classify organic molecules. 

 

Because of their electrical influence on surrounding regions of the molecule, functional groups make the molecule more acidic or basic. Aliphatic hydrocarbons are classified into three categories of homologous series based on their saturation state, as follows. 1. alkanes ( paraffins ) : aliphatic hydrocarbons with no double or triple bonds, only C - C and C - H single bonds. 2. alkenes ( olefins ) : aliphatic hydrocarbons with one or more double bonds, for example, di - olefins ( dienes ) or poly - olefins. 3. acetylenes ( alkynes ) : aliphatic hydrocarbons with one or more triple bonds. 

 

The remaining members of the group are categorised according to the functional groups that are present. These compounds can be "straight - chain", "branched - chain", or "cyclic." In petroleum chemistry, the degree of branching influences properties such as the octane number or cetane number. As cyclic derivatives, both saturated ( alicyclic ) and unsaturated molecules exist. The most stable rings include five or six carbon atoms, however both large ( macrocycles ) and small rings are frequent. The three - membered cyclopropane ( ( CH2 )3 ) family is the smallest cycloalkane family.

 

Aromatic rings have an alternating ( or conjugated ) double bond, whereas saturated cyclic compounds have only single bonds. Cycloalkanes lack numerous bonds, but cycloalkenes and cycloalkynes do. Conjugated double bonds are found in aromatic hydrocarbons. This means that every carbon atom in the ring is sp2 hybridised, which provides additional stability. The most prominent example is benzene, whose structure was proposed by Kekulé, who was the first to propose the delocalization or resonance principle to explain its structure.

 

Aromaticity is bestowed on "conventional" cyclic molecules by the existence of 4n + 2 delocalized pi electrons, where n is an integer. The existence of 4n conjugated pi electrons confers particular instability ( antiaromaticity ). If heteroatoms are present, the properties of the cyclic hydrocarbons are altered once more. Heteratoms can exist as either substituents bonded externally to the ring ( exocyclic ) or as a member of the ring itself ( endocyclic ). In the latter situation, the ring is referred to as a heterocycle.

 

Aromatic heterocycles include pyridine and furan, whereas alicyclic heterocycles include piperidine and tetrahydrofuran. Oxygen, sulphur, or nitrogen are the most prevalent heteroatoms in heterocyclic compounds, with the latter being especially common in biological systems. Heterocycles can be found in a variety of items, including aniline dyes and pharmaceuticals. They are also found in a variety of biological molecules such as alkaloids, vitamins, steroids, and nucleic acids ( e.g., DNA, RNA ). Rings on an edge can combine with other rings to form polycyclic molecules.

 

Purine nucleoside bases are polycyclic aromatic heterocycles of note. Rings can also fuse at a "corner" so that one atom ( nearly often carbon ) has two bonds to one ring and two bonds to another. Spiro compounds are significant in a variety of natural goods. Carbon has the unique property of rapidly forming chains or networks that are linked by carbon - carbon ( carbon - to - carbon ) bonds. The joining process is known as polymerization, and the chains or networks are known as polymers.

 

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A monomer is the source chemical. There are two types of polymers, viz., synthetic polymers and biopolymers. Synthetic polymers are created artificially and are also known as industrial polymers. Biopolymers exist in a naturally occurring environment or without human interference. Biomolecular chemistry is a prominent branch of organic chemistry that biochemists are interested in. In living organisms, several complex multi - functional group molecules are important.

 

Peptides, DNA, RNA and polysaccharides such as starches in animals and celluloses in plants are examples of long - chain biopolymers. The amino acids ( monomer building components of peptides and proteins ), carbohydrates ( including polysaccharides ), nucleic acids ( including DNA and RNA as polymers ), and lipids are the other major types. Furthermore, animal biochemistry comprises a large number of small molecule intermediates that aid in energy synthesis via the Krebs cycle and produce isoprene, the most common hydrocarbon in animals.

 

Isoprenes are essential steroid structural ( cholesterol ) and steroid hormone molecules in mammals. Terpenes, terpenoids, certain alkaloids, and a class of hydrocarbons known as biopolymer poly isoprenoids are formed in plants and are found in the latex of diverse plant species, which is used to make rubber. Small molecules, often known as'small organic compounds', are an important class of organic chemicals in pharmacology. A tiny molecule in this context is a small organic compound that is physiologically active but is not a polymer.

 

In practise, tiny molecules have a molar mass of less than 1000 g / mol. Fullerenes and carbon nanotubes, which are carbon compounds with spheroidal and tubular forms, have sparked a great deal of interest in the related field of materials science. Sir Harold W. Kroto of the United Kingdom and Richard E. Smalley and Robert F. Curl, Jr. of the United States found the first fullerene in 1985. These chemists and their assistants created cagelike molecules.

 

Latter were created out of 60 carbon atoms ( C60 ) joined by single and double bonds to form a hollow sphere with 12 pentagonal and 20 hexagonal faces. A design that resembles a football, or soccer ball. The trio received the Nobel Prize in 1996 for their pioneering achievements. Buckminster fullerene ( or, more simply, the buckyball ) was called after the American architect R. Buckminster Fuller, whose geodesic dome is built on the same structural principles as the C60 molecule. 

 

Organic compounds with carbon - nitrogen, oxygen, and halogen linkages are not generally classified individually. Others are classified as major groups within organic chemistry and are studied under names like organosulfur chemistry, organometallic chemistry, organo phosphorus chemistry, and organosilicon chemistry. Organic reactions are chemical processes in which organic substances are involved. Many of these reactions include functional groups.

 

The general theory of these reactions entails a detailed examination of parameters such as key atom electron affinity, bond strengths, and steric hindrance. These parameters can influence the relative stability of short - lived reactive intermediates, which usually define the reaction course directly. Addition reactions, elimination reactions, substitution reactions, pericyclic reactions, rearrangement reactions, and redox reactions are the most common types of reactions. A substitution reaction is an example of a common reaction. 

 

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The number of organic reactions is limitless. However, certain broad patterns emerge that can be used to characterise a wide range of common or beneficial reactions. Each reaction has a stepwise reaction mechanism that describes how it occurs in sequence, though the complete explanation of steps is not always obvious from a list of reactants alone. The gradual progression of any given reaction mechanism can be illustrated using arrow pushing techniques, which use curving arrows to follow electron flow as starting materials migrate from intermediates to final products. 

 

Synthetic organic chemistry is an applied science because it is related to engineering, which is defined as the "design, analysis, and / or construction of works for practical purposes." Organic synthesis of a novel product is a problem - solving process in which a synthesis for a target molecule is built by selecting optimal reactions from ideal starting components. Tens of reaction steps can be used to generate the target molecule in complex compounds. The synthesis is carried out by utilising the reactivity of the functional groups in the molecule.

 

A carbonyl molecule, for example, can be employed as a nucleophile by converting it to an enolate or as an electrophile. The combination of the two is known as the aldol reaction. Designing practically relevant syntheses usually necessitates performing the actual synthesis in the laboratory. Total synthesis refers to the scientific practise of developing new synthetic methods for complicated compounds. Retrosynthesis, popularised by E.J. Corey, begins with the target molecule and splices it into fragments based on known reactions. 

 

The components, or putative predecessors, are treated in the same way until suitable and ideally inexpensive beginning materials are found. The retrosynthesis is then written backwards to produce the synthesis. Because each chemical and precursor has numerous syntheses, a "synthetic tree" can be created. 

What is Organic Matter, Let's Learn ! 

Organic matter, also known as organic material or natural organic matter, is a vast source of carbon - based chemicals found in natural and artificial, terrestrial and aquatic habitats. It is organic compound - rich stuff derived from the faeces and remains of organisms such as plants and animals. Organic molecules can also be created through chemical reactions that do not involve living organisms. The basic structures are made up of cellulose, tannin, cutin, and lignin, as well as additional proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates.

 

Organic matter is critical to the transport of nutrients in the ecosystem and to the retention of water on the planet's surface. Organic substances make up living organisms. They emit or excrete organic material into their surroundings, shed body parts such as leaves and roots, and their bodies are broken down by bacterial and fungal action after they die. Polymerization of distinct portions of already broken down matter can result in larger molecules of organic matter.

 

Natural organic matter's composition is determined by its origin, transformation mechanism, age, and current environment, and thus its bio - physico chemical functions vary with different surroundings. Organic matter is abundant throughout the environment and is decomposed by soil microbial populations, which are critical for nutrient availability. It can go into soil and mainstream water after deteriorating and reacting. Living organisms get their sustenance from organic stuff. 

 

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Organic matter functions as a buffer in aqueous solutions to keep the pH of the environment neutral. It has been claimed that the buffer acting component is important for neutralising acid rain. Groundwater provides some organic stuff that is not already present in the soil. Organic matter can freely flow between the phases when groundwater saturates the soil or sediment around it. Groundwater has its own natural organic matter sources, which include the following. Kerogen and coal are organic matter deposits. Organic matter in soil and sediment. 

 

Organic debris from rivers, lakes, and marine systems invading the subsoil." Organic matter is formed as organisms decompose and is subsequently transported and recycled. Some biomass does not migrate; instead, it remains immobile for millions of years. Plants, animals, and microorganisms contribute to the organic matter in soil. Leaf litter and woody particles, for example, fall to the forest floor. This is referred to as organic stuff at times. Soil organic matter is what it is when it decays to the point where it is no longer recognisable.

 

Humus is formed when organic matter has decomposed into a stable material that can withstand further decomposition. Thus, soil organic matter includes all organic matter in soil, excluding stuff that has not decomposed. Soil organic matter has the critical feature of boosting a soil's capacity to hold water and nutrients and allowing their delayed release, hence improving plant development circumstances. Another benefit of humus is that it helps the soil hold together, making it easier for nematodes, or microscopic microorganisms, to decompose the nutrients in the soil. 

 

There are various methods for rapidly increasing the amount of humus. The addition of compost, plant or animal waste, or green manure to soil will increase the quantity of humus in the soil. Plant and animal waste: dead plants or plant waste such as leaves or bush and tree clippings, as well as animal manure. Green manure is defined as plants or plant material grown only for the purpose of being absorbed into soil. These three components provide nourishment to nematodes and bacteria, allowing them to thrive and produce more humus.

 

It provides plants with adequate nutrients to survive and grow. Soil organic matter is critical to both ecology and agriculture, but it is especially important in organic farming, where it is highly relied upon. The priming effect is characterised by significant alterations in the natural process of soil organic matter ( SOM ) turnover as a result of relatively minor soil intervention. The phenomena is mainly produced by pulsed or continuous fluctuations in fresh organic matter ( FOM ) inputs.

 

Priming effects typically cause mineralization to accelerate in response to a trigger, such as FOM inputs. The source of this increase in decomposition has frequently been linked to an increase in microbial activity caused by the FOM's increased energy and nutrient availability. Following the addition of FOM, it is expected that specialised microbes will proliferate swiftly and only digest the newly introduced organic matter. In certain places, the turnover rate of SOM is at least one order of magnitude greater than that of bulk soil. 

 

Other soil treatments, in addition to organic matter inputs, that cause this short - term alteration in turnover rates include "input of mineral fertiliser, exudation of organic substances by roots, mere mechanical treatment of soil or its drying and rewetting." Priming effects can be favourable or harmful depending on how the soil reacts to the additional ingredient. A positive priming impact accelerates mineralization, whereas a negative priming effect causes immobilisation, resulting in N unavailability.

 

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Although the majority of the changes have been observed in C and N pools, the priming effect can also be detected in phosphorus, sulphur, and other nutrients. Löhnis was the first to uncover the priming effect phenomena in 1926 while studying green manure breakdown and its effects on legume plants in soil. He discovered that adding fresh organic wastes to the soil resulted in increased mineralization by the humus N. However, it wasn't until 1953 when Bingeman coined the phrase "priming effect".

 

It was in his study titled, The influence of the addition of organic material on the decomposition of an organic soil. Before the term "priming effect," several others were used, including priming action, added nitrogen interaction ( ANI ), extra N, and more N. Despite these early contributions, the priming effect was mainly ignored until the 1980s - 1990s. The priming effect has been seen in numerous research and is thought to be a widespread occurrence in most plant soil systems.

 

However, the mechanisms that cause the priming effect are more complex than first assumed and are still widely misunderstood. Although the cause of the priming effect remains unknown, a few undisputed facts have emerged from a review of current research. The priming effect might occur instantly or very quickly ( days or weeks ) after a material is added to the soil. The priming effect is greater in soils rich in C and N than in soils deficient in these elements. In sterile conditions, no true priming effects have been found. 

 

As the amount of applied therapy to the soil grows, so does the size of the priming effect. Recent discoveries imply that the same priming effect mechanisms that function in soil systems may also be present in aquatic ecosystems, indicating the necessity for additional research into this phenomena. Organic matter can be defined as biological stuff that is decaying or degrading, such as humus. A deeper examination of the decaying biological material reveals so - called organic components ( biological molecules ) in the process of breaking up ( disintegrating ). 

 

Bacterial or fungal enzymatic catalysis is the primary process by which soil compounds degrade. If bacteria and fungi had not exist on Earth, the breakdown process would have been much slower. Organic matter measurements often only detect organic compounds or carbon, and so only approximate the level of once - living or decomposing matter. Some definitions of organic matter also limit "organic matter" to the carbon content, or organic molecules, and do not address the origins or decomposition of the stuff.

 

In this way, living beings do not create all organic substances, and live organisms do not simply leave behind organic material. While biotic, a clam's shell, for example, does not contain much organic carbon and hence may not be considered organic matter in this sense. In contrast, urea is one of many chemical molecules that can be synthesised in the absence of biological activity. Organic matter is highly diverse and complicated. In general, organic matter is classified as follows in terms of weight. 

 

Carbon is 45 - 55% of the total, 35% to 45% oxygen, 3% to 5% hydrogen, 1% to 4% nitrogen. The molecular weights of these compounds can range from 200 to 20,000 amu depending on whether or not they repolymerize. Aromatic molecules, in which carbon atoms typically form six - membered rings, contain up to one - third of the carbon present. Because of resonance stabilisation, these rings are exceedingly stable and difficult to break down. The aromatic rings are also vulnerable to electrophilic and nucleophilic attacks.

 

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It is from other electron - donating or electron - accepting materials, which explains how polymerization can be used to produce bigger organic compounds. There are other interactions that occur in the soil with organic matter and other materials to produce chemicals that have never been seen before. Unfortunately, characterising these is extremely challenging because so little is known about natural organic matter in the first place. Currently, research is being conducted to learn more about these novel compounds and how many of them are being created. 

 

Aquatic organic matter is further classified into two components, viz., ( 1 ) dissolved organic matter ( DOM ), also known as coloured dissolved organic matter ( CDOM )  or dissolved organic carbon ( DOC ) , and ( 2 ) particulate organic matter ( POM ). They are normally distinguished by what can ( DOM ) and cannot ( POM ) pass through a 0.45 micro metre filter. Organic matter is crucial in the treatment and recycling of drinking water and wastewater, natural aquatic habitats, aquaculture, and environmental rehabilitation. 

 

It is consequently critical to have reliable detection and characterisation methods for both short and long-term monitoring. For decades, a range of analytical detection methods for organic matter have been used to describe and characterise organic matter. These include, but are not limited to, total and dissolved organic carbon, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance ( NMR ) spectroscopy, infrared ( IR ) spectroscopy, UV - Visible spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Each of these approaches has merits and disadvantages. 

 

The same property of natural organic matter that aids in water retention in soil causes issues for existing water filtration systems. Organic matter can still bond to metal ions and minerals in water. The purification procedure does not necessarily stop these bonded molecules, but they do not damage humans, animals, or plants. However, due to the strong reactivity of organic matter, by - products containing no nutrients can be produced. Because these by - products are larger than membrane pore diameters, they can cause biofouling.

 

Latter effectively clogs water filtration systems in water purification plants. Chlorine disinfection ( chlorination ) can break down leftover material that clogs systems and treat this clogging problem. Chlorination, on the other hand, can produce disinfection byproducts. Water containing organic substances can be disinfected using radical reactions initiated by ozone. The oxidation properties of ozone ( three oxygens ) are quite strong. When it decomposes, it produces hydroxyl radicals ( OH ), which react with organic materials to prevent biofouling. 

 

The association of "organic" with living organisms stems from the now - defunct notion of vitalism, which held that life possessed a unique power that could only produce organic substances. This notion was initially challenged following Friedrich Wöhler's artificial synthesis of urea in 1828. 

Let's explore Organic Geo Chemistry : 

Organic geochemistry is the study of the effects and activities of organisms on the Earth. It is primarily concerned with the content and mechanism of genesis of organic materials in rocks and bodies of water. The study of organic geochemistry can be traced back to the work of Alfred E. Treibs, known as "the father of organic geochemistry." Treibs initially isolated metallo porphyrins from petroleum. This finding established the biological origin of petroleum, which was previously unknown.

 

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Metallo porphyrins are relatively stable organic molecules in general, and the precise structures of the isolated derivatives demonstrated that they originated from chlorophyll. The presence of organic molecules in sedimentary deposits and petroleum deposits has long been studied. Studies of ancient sediments and rock reveal information about the origins and sources of oil and petroleum, as well as the biological precursors of life. Geochemists have been particularly interested in oil spills.

 

It is because they relate to the impact of petroleum and oil on the contemporary geological environment. With the analysis of spill samples from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill, organic geochemical expertise on oil - spill chemistry blossomed. Geochemists investigate petroleum inclusions in geological rocks in order to compare modern fluid inclusions to dated samples. This study reveals the age of the petroleum samples as well as the surrounding geology. 

 

To analyse samples using mass spectrometry or Raman spectroscopy, spectrographic, optical, destructive, and nondestructive approaches are used. The identified discrepancies in samples, such as the oil - to - gas ratio or viscosity, are usually related to the sample's rock source. Other features that are commonly mentioned include pressure, volume, temperature parameters, sample texture, and sample composition. When the source rock is near or in a water source, analysis becomes complicated. 

Carbon isotope analysis is also used to investigate petroleum. Carbon isotopes shed light on the Earth's carbon cycle as well as geological processes. Geochemists can determine the composition of petroleum deposits by comparing the ratio of carbon isotopes to known values for carbon - based structures of which the petroleum could be comprised. Since the beginning of its use as an energy source, extensive knowledge about coal has been accumulated. Modern geochemists, on the other hand, are still investigating how plant material transforms into coal.

They discovered that coalification is caused by the selective breakdown of plant components while other plant elements are retained. Coal macro molecules are often composed of these biopolymers found in algae, spores, and wood. Geochemists have solved the mystery of coal creation by comparing the properties of biopolymers to those of current coal macromolecules. Carbon NMR and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry ( GC - MS ) paired with flash pyrolysis have substantially improved organic geochemists' ability to investigate the minute structural units of coal. 

Isochron dating of uranium in coalified samples revealed more information about the age of coal deposits. The parent - to - daughter ratio of uranium isotopes has been used to date some samples to the Late Cretaceous Period. Organic geochemistry in the modern era comprises investigations of recent sediments to better understand the carbon cycle, climate change, and ocean activities. Petroleum - focused geochemists investigate the impact of petroleum on the geological environment in relation with petroleum studies.

Geochemistry also investigates other contaminants in geological systems, such as metabolites generated by hydrocarbon breakdown. Organic geochemistry analytical techniques, such as GC - MS, enable chemists to identify the complex effects of organic metabolites and human - derived waste products on the geological environment. Human - made pollution from agricultural work are of particular concern. The use of animal manure has been done in conjunction with general municipal and sewage waste management.

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This has altered several physical features of the agricultural soil and neighbouring soils. Organic geochemistry is important in watery environments as well. Pollutants, their metabolites, and how they enter bodies of water are all important topics in the area. This organic matter can also be formed from geological processes occurring in or near bodies of water, influencing adjacent lifeforms and protein production in the same way. Dissolved organic matter is often luminous.

Thus, fluorescence spectroscopy has been proposed as a tool for examining organic matter in bodies of water. Organic geochemistry is also studied in the atmosphere. Geochemists in this subject specialise in studying the composition of insoluble substances in the lower atmosphere. They have described organic aerosol implications such as physiological toxicity, direct and indirect climatic forcing, smog, rain acidification, and absorption into the natural carbon cycle. 

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Let's explore Chemical Reactors ! 

A chemical reactor is a sealed volume in which a chemical reaction occurs. It is often known in chemical engineering to be a process vessel used to carry out a chemical reaction, which is one of the standard unit operations in chemical process analysis. A chemical reactor's design involves many facets of chemical engineering. Reactors are designed by chemical engineers to maximise net present value for a given reaction. Designers guarantee that the reaction proceeds as efficiently as possible towards the desired output product.

 

Thus, yielding the best yield while costing the least amount of money to purchase and run. Energy intake, energy removal, raw material costs, labour, and so on are all normal operating expenses. Heating or cooling, pumping to increase pressure, frictional pressure loss, or agitation are all examples of energy shifts. Chemical reaction engineering is a subfield of chemical engineering that deals with chemical reactors and their design, particularly through the application of chemical kinetics to industrial systems. 

 

The most frequent fundamental forms of chemical reactors are tanks ( in which the reactants mix over the entire volume ) and pipes or tubes ( for laminar flow reactors and plug flow reactors ). Both types can be employed as continuous or batch reactors, and either can hold one or more solids ( reagents, catalysts, or inert materials ), but the reagents and products are typically fluids ( liquids or gases ). Continuous reactors normally function at steady - state, whereas batch reactors must operate in a transient condition.

 

When a reactor is brought online for the first time or after a shutdown, it is in a transient state, and critical process variables vary over time. Three idealised models are used to estimate the most essential process variables of various chemical reactors. They are the following. Models of batch reactors, continuous stirred - tank reactors ( CSTR ), and plug flow reactors ( PFR ). Many real - world reactors can be represented as a combination of these fundamental categories. 

 

The following are important process variables. Time spent in residence ( lower case Greek tau ), The volume ( V ), The temperature ( T ), ( P ) Pressure, 
Chemical species concentrations ( C1, C2, C3, ... Cn ) and Coefficients of heat transmission ( h, U ). A tubular reactor is frequently a packed bed. The tube or channel in this scenario comprises particles or pellets, usually a solid catalyst. The liquid or gas phase reactants are pushed through the catalyst bed. A fluidized bed can also be a chemical reactor. 

 

Chemical reactions in a reactor can be exothermic, which means they emit heat, or endothermic, which means they absorb heat. To cool or heat the contents of a tank reactor, a cooling or heating jacket or cooling or heating coils ( tubes ) wrapped around the outside of the vessel wall may be used, whereas tubular reactors can be designed as heat exchangers if the reaction is strongly exothermic, or as furnaces if the reaction is strongly endothermic. A batch reactor is the most basic type of reactor.

 

Materials are put into a batch reactor, and the reaction takes its course over time. A batch reactor does not reach a stable state, therefore temperature, pressure, and volume control are frequently required. As a result, many batch reactors contain ports for sensors as well as material input and output. Batch reactors are commonly employed in small - scale production and reactions involving biological materials, such as brewing, pulping, and enzyme manufacture. A pressure reactor is an example of a batch reactor. 

 

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A CSTR introduces one or more fluid reagents into a tank reactor, which is normally agitated with an impeller to ensure correct reagent mixing while the reactor effluent is evacuated. The space time, or the time required to process one reactor volume of fluid, is calculated by dividing the volume of the tank by the average volumetric flow rate through the tank. The estimated % completion of the reaction can be computed using chemical kinetics. The following are some critical elements of the CSTR. 

 

The mass flow rate in must equal the mass flow rate out at steady - state, else the tank will overflow or empty ( transient state ). The model equation must be obtained from the differential mass and energy balances when the reactor is in a transient condition. Because the concentration is assumed to be uniform throughout the reactor, the reaction proceeds at the rate associated with the final ( output ) concentration. It is often more cost effective to run numerous CSTRs in parallel.

 

This enables the first CSTR, for example, to operate at a greater reagent concentration and hence a faster reaction rate. In these circumstances, the reactor sizes can be adjusted to reduce the total capital investment necessary to conduct the process. It is possible to show that an unlimited number of infinitely small CSTRs working in series is comparable to a PFR. A CSTR's behaviour is frequently approximated or modelled by a Continuous Ideally Stirred - Tank Reactor ( CISTR ). All CISTR calculations are based on ideal mixing.

 

This approximation is regarded valid for engineering applications if the residence time is 5 - 10 times the mixing time. The CISTR model is frequently used to simplify engineering calculations and to characterise research reactors. In practise, it can only be approached, especially in big industrial reactors with long mixing times. A loop reactor is a hybrid catalytic reactor that looks like a tubular reactor yet runs like a CSTR. The reaction mixture circulates in a tube loop encircled by a jacket for cooling or heating, with a continuous flow of starting material in and result out. 

 

One or more fluid reagents are circulated via a pipe or tube in a PFR, also known as a continuous tubular reactor ( CTR ). As the reagents pass through the PFR, the chemical reaction continues. The changing reaction rate forms a gradient with regard to distance traversed in this type of reactor. At the inlet to the PFR, the rate is very high, but as the concentrations of the reagents decline and the concentration of the product(s) increases, the rate lowers. The following are some critical aspects of the PFR. 

 

The idealised PFR model assumes no axial mixing. No fluid travelling through the reactor mixes with fluid upstream or downstream of it, as the word "plug flow" implies. Reagents can be introduced into the PFR from sites other than the intake. This may result in increased efficiency or a reduction in the size and cost of the PFR. A PFR is theoretically more efficient than a CSTR of the same volume. That is, given the same space - time ( or residence time ), a reaction in a PFR will complete at a higher percentage than in a CSTR. This isn't always the case with reversible reactions. 

 

It is impossible for most chemical processes of industrial importance to complete to 100% completion. As the reactants are consumed, the rate of reaction slows until the system enters dynamic equilibrium ( no net reaction or change in chemical species happens ). Most systems' equilibrium point is less than 100% complete. As a result, a separation procedure, such as distillation, is sometimes used after a chemical reactor to separate any residual reagents or byproducts from the target product.

 

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These chemicals are occasionally reused at the start of the process, as in the Haber process. To reach equilibrium, very large reactors may be required in some instances, and chemical engineers may choose to separate the partially reacted mixture and recycle the residual reactants. The assumption of plug flow is particularly erroneous under laminar flow circumstances because the fluid travelling through the centre of the tube moves significantly faster than the fluid near the wall.

 

Through the use of fluid oscillation and orifice baffles, the continuous oscillatory baffled reactor ( COBR ) achieves thorough mixing, allowing plug flow to be approximated under laminar flow conditions. A semibatch reactor can accept and process both continuous and batch inputs and outputs. A fermenter, for example, contains a batch of medium and bacteria that continuously create carbon dioxide that must be eliminated. Similarly, it is typically difficult to react a gas with a liquid since a significant volume of gas is required to react with an equal mass of liquid.

 

A constant stream of gas can be bubbled through a batch of liquid to solve this problem. In general, semibatch operation involves loading one chemical reactant into the reactor and slowly adding a second chemical ( for example, to prevent side reactions ), or continuously removing a product that results from a phase change, such as a gas formed by the reaction, a solid that precipitates out, or a hydrophobic product that forms in an aqueous solution. Although catalytic reactors are frequently built as plug flow reactors, their analysis necessitates a more complex approach.

 

A catalytic reaction's rate is proportional to the amount of catalyst with which the reagents come into contact, as well as the concentration of the reactants. This is proportional to the exposed area, the effectiveness of reagent in and product out diffusion, and the efficacy of mixing with a solid phase catalyst and fluid phase reagents. In most cases, perfect mixing cannot be anticipated. Furthermore, a catalytic reaction pathway frequently happens in numerous steps with intermediates that are chemically bound to the catalyst. 

 

Because chemical binding to the catalyst is itself a chemical reaction, the kinetics may be affected. Catalytic processes frequently exhibit what is known as faked kinetics, which occur when the apparent kinetics diverge from the real chemical kinetics due to physical transport effects. The behaviour of the catalyst is also taken into account. Catalysts are deactivated by processes such as sintering, coking, and poisoning, particularly in high - temperature petrochemical processes. 

 

The catalytic converter, which processes hazardous components of automotive exhausts, is a common example of a catalytic reactor. However, most petrochemical reactors are catalytic and are responsible for the majority of industrial chemical production, with exceptionally high - volume examples including sulfuric acid, ammonia, reformate / BTEX ( benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene ), and fluid catalytic cracking. Various configurations are possible.

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Let's learn Chemical Reaction Engineering !

Chemical reaction engineering ( also known as reaction engineering or reactor engineering ) is a branch of chemical engineering or industrial chemistry that deals with chemical reactors. Typically, the phrase refers to catalytic reaction systems in which either a homogeneous or heterogeneous catalyst is included in the reactor. Sometimes a reactor is not present in and of itself, but is integrated into a process, such as in reactive separations vessels, retorts, some fuel cells, and photocatalytic surfaces.

 

The effect of solvent on reaction kinetics is also taken into account. Chemical reaction engineering emerged as a discipline in the early 1950s as a result of the efforts of researchers at the Shell Amsterdam research centre and the University of Delft. J.C. Vlugter is credited for coining the term chemical reaction engineering while organising the 1st European Symposium on Chemical Reaction Engineering in Amsterdam in 1957. Chemical reaction engineering is concerned with the research and optimisation of chemical processes in order to determine the optimal reactor design.

 

As a result, interactions between flow phenomena, mass transfer, heat transfer, and reaction kinetics are critical in relating reactor performance to feed composition and operating parameters. Although it was developed for the petroleum and petrochemical sectors, its generic methodology combining reaction chemistry and chemical engineering ideas allows for the optimisation of a wide range of systems where reaction modelling or engineering is required.

 

Approaches to chemical reaction engineering are indeed specialised for the development of novel processes and the enhancement of existing technologies. The International Symposia on Chemical Reaction Engineering, or ISCRE conferences, are the most important series of symposia. These three - day conferences are held every two years, rotating among sites in North America, Europe, and the Asia - Pacific region, on a six - year cycle. 

 

These conferences bring together for three days distinguished international researchers in reaction engineering, prominent industrial practitioners, and new researchers and students of this multifaceted field. ISCRE symposia are a unique gathering place for reaction engineers where research gains are consolidated and new frontiers explored. The state of the art of various sub - disciplines of reaction engineering is reviewed in a timely manner, and new research initiatives are discussed. 

 

In 1996, the ISCRE Board of Directors established the Neal R. Amundson Award for Excellence in Chemical Reaction Engineering. This award honours a Chemical Reaction Engineering pioneer who has had a significant impact on the theory or practise of the area via originality, ingenuity, and uniqueness of thought or application. The prize is presented at an ISCRE meeting every three years and consists of a Plaque and a $5000 cheque. ExxonMobil Corporation generously supports the Amundson Award. 

 

The Rutherford Aris Young Investigator Award for Excellence in Chemical Reaction Engineering will be presented by the ISCRE, Inc. Board of Directors in 2016. This prize will recognise scientists in their early stages of their careers who have made excellent contributions to experimental and / or theoretical reaction engineering research. The recipient must be under the age of 40 at the conclusion of the calendar year in which the award is given. The Aris Award is made possible by a generous contribution from the UOP, L.L.C., a Honeywell Company.

 

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The award includes a trophy, a $3000 honorarium, and up to $2000 in travel funding to present at an ISCRE / NASCRE conference and give a lecture at UOP. This honour is in addition to ISCRE's other main honour, the Neal R. Amundson Award. A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that uses redox processes to transform the chemical energy of a fuel ( typically hydrogen ) and an oxidising agent ( commonly oxygen ) into electricity. Fuel cells differ from most batteries in that they require a constant supply of fuel and oxygen ( generally from air ) to sustain the chemical reaction. 

 

Whereas in a battery, the chemical energy is often derived from chemicals already present in the battery. As long as fuel and oxygen are available, fuel cells can create power indefinitely. Sir William Grove invented the first fuel cells in 1838. Following Francis Thomas Bacon's discovery of the hydrogen - oxygen fuel cell in 1932, the first commercial usage of fuel cells occurred almost a century later. The alkaline fuel cell, sometimes known as the Bacon fuel cell after its inventor, has been utilised in NASA space programmes since the mid - 1960s to power satellites and space capsules.

 

Since then, fuel cells have been used in a variety of additional applications. Fuel cells are utilised for primary and backup power in commercial, industrial, and residential structures, as well as in distant or inaccessible places. They are also used to power fuel cell vehicles such as forklifts, autos, buses, trains, boats, motorbikes, and submarines. There are many different types of fuel cells, but they all have an anode, a cathode, and an electrolyte that permits ions to travel between the two sides of the fuel cell, commonly positively charged hydrogen ions ( protons ).

 

A catalyst at the anode causes the fuel to undergo oxidation processes, which produce ions ( typically positively charged hydrogen ions ) and electrons. The electrolyte transports ions from the anode to the cathode. Simultaneously, electrons move from the anode to the cathode via an external circuit, resulting in direct current electricity. Another catalyst causes ions, electrons, and oxygen to react at the cathode, resulting in the formation of water and perhaps other products. 

 

The kind of electrolyte used in fuel cells is classified, as is the startup time, which ranges from 1 second for proton - exchange membrane fuel cells ( PEM fuel cells, or PEMFC ) to 10 minutes for solid oxide fuel cells ( SOFC ). Flow batteries are a comparable technique in which the fuel may be recharged. Individual fuel cells produce relatively low electrical potentials, around 0.7 volts, therefore cells are "stacked," or connected in series, to generate enough voltage to suit the requirements of an application.

 

In addition to electricity, fuel cells emit water vapour, heat, and very minute amounts of nitrogen dioxide and other pollutants, depending on the fuel source. PEMFC cells emit fewer nitrogen oxides than SOFC cells in general. They operate at lower temperatures, use hydrogen as fuel, and limit the passage of nitrogen into the anode via the proton exchange membrane, which produces NOx. The energy efficiency of a fuel cell is typically between 40 and 60%; however, if waste heat is recovered in a cogeneration scheme, efficiencies of up to 85% can be reached. 

 

In 1838, the first mentions of hydrogen fuel cells surfaced. Welsh scientist and lawyer Sir William Grove talked about the construction of his first crude fuel cells in a letter dated October 1838 but published in the December 1838 issue of The London and Edinburgh Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science. He used sheet iron, copper, and porcelain plates, as well as a copper sulphate and weak acid solution. Christian Friedrich Schönbein, a German physicist, explained the first rudimentary fuel cell.

 

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He invented in a letter to the same journal written in December 1838 but published in June 1839. His message addressed the current generated by dissolved hydrogen and oxygen in water. Grove later sketched his idea in the same diary in 1842. The ingredients he utilised in his fuel cell were comparable to those employed in today's phosphoric acid fuel cell. Francis Thomas Bacon, an English engineer, constructed a 5 kW stationary fuel cell in 1932.

 

The alkaline fuel cell ( AFC ), sometimes known as the Bacon fuel cell after its inventor, is one of the most advanced fuel cell technologies, having been employed by NASA since the mid - 1960s. W. Thomas Grubb, a chemist at General Electric ( GE ), further refined the initial fuel cell design in 1955 by employing a sulphonated polystyrene ion - exchange membrane as the electrolyte. Leonard Niedrach, another GE chemist, found a method of putting platinum onto the membrane, which acted as a catalyst for the required hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions three years later.

 

The "Grubb - Niedrach fuel cell" was born from this. This technology was later developed by GE in collaboration with NASA and McDonnell Aircraft, and it was used during Project Gemini. This was the first time a fuel cell was used commercially. In 1959, a team led by Harry Ihrig created a 15 kW fuel cell tractor for Allis - Chalmers, which was displayed at state fairs across the country. The electrolyte in this system was potassium hydroxide, and the reactants were compressed hydrogen and oxygen.

 

Bacon and his colleagues later demonstrated a functional five - kilowatt unit capable of powering a welding machine in 1959. Pratt & Whitney licenced Bacon's US patents in the 1960s for use in the US space programme to produce energy and drinking water ( hydrogen and oxygen were readily accessible from the spaceship tanks ). Roger E. Billings created the first hydrogen fuel cell vehicle in 1991. UTC Power was the first to develop and market a large, stationary fuel cell system for use as a cogeneration power plant in hospitals, universities, and major corporate buildings. 

 

In honour of the fuel cell industry and America's role in fuel cell development, the United States Senate established National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Day on October 8, 2015, by enacting S. RES 217. The date was chosen in honour of hydrogen's atomic weight ( 1.008 ). There are many different types of fuel cells, but they all work in the same general way. They are composed of three adjacent segments: anode, electrolyte, and cathode. At the interfaces of the three distinct segments, two chemical reactions occur.

 

The net effect of the two processes is that fuel is used, water or carbon dioxide is produced, and an electric current is produced, which can be utilised to power electrical equipment ( the load ). A catalyst ionises the fuel, usually hydrogen, at the anode, converting it into a positively charged ion and a negatively charged electron. The electrolyte is a substance that is specifically engineered to allow ions to pass through but not electrons. The released electrons create an electric current as they move via a wire. Ions pass through the electrolyte to reach the cathode.