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Outline of NCERT / CBSE ( Central Board of Secondary Education ) prescribed syllabus for subject Physics ( Physical Science ) Syllabus for Class 11 th ( XI th ) - Part 1 :
Physical World :
Fundamental forces in nature ;
Physics, technology and society ;
Nature of Physical Laws
Units & Measurements :
International system of units ;
Measurement of length & mass & time ;
Accuracy, Precision of instruments and errors in measurement ;
Significant figures ;
Dimensions of physical quantities ;
Dimensional formulae and dimensional equations ;
Dimensional analysis and its applications
Motion in a Straight Line :
Position, path length and displacement ;
Average velocity and average speed ;
Instantaneous velocity and speed ;
Kinematic equations for uniformly accelerated motion ;
Motion in a Plane :
Scalars and vectors ;
Multiplication of vectors by real numbers ;
Addition and subtraction of vectors – graphical method ;
Resolution of vectors ;
Vector addition – analytical method ;
Motion in a plane ;
Motion in a plane with constant acceleration ;
Relative velocity in two dimensions ;
Projectile motion ;
Uniform circular motion
Laws of Motion :
Aristotle’s fallacy ;
The law of inertia ;
Newton’s first law of motion ;
Newton’s second law of motion ;
Newton’s third law of motion ;
Conservation of momentum ;
Equilibrium of a particle ;
Common forces in mechanics ;
Circular motion ;
Solving problems in mechanics
Work, Energy & Power :
Notions of work and kinetic energy : The work-energy theorem ;
Kinetic energy ;
Work done by a variable force ;
The work-energy theorem for a variable force ;
The concept of potential energy ;
The conservation of mechanical energy ;
The potential energy of a spring ;
Various forms of energy : the law of conservation of energy ;
System of Particles & Rotational Motion :
Centre of mass ;
Motion of centre of mass ;
Linear momentum of a system of particles ;
Vector product of two vectors ;
Angular velocity and its relation with linear velocity ;
Torque and angular momentum ;
Equilibrium of a rigid body ;
Moment of inertia ;
Theorems of perpendicular and parallel axes ;
Kinematics of rotational motion about a fixed axis ;
Dynamics of rotational motion about a fixed axis ;
Angular momentum in case of rotations about a fixed axis ;
Kepler’s laws ;
Universal law of gravitation ;
The gravitational constant ;
Acceleration due to gravity of the earth ;
Acceleration due to gravity below and above the surface of earth ;
Gravitational potential energy ;
Escape speed ;
Earth satellite ;
Energy of an orbiting satellite ;
Geostationary and polar satellites ;
Outline of NCERT / CBSE ( Central Board of Secondary Education ) prescribed syllabus for subject Physics ( Physical Science ) Syllabus for Class 11 th ( XI th ) - Part 2 :
Mechanical Properties of Solids :
Elastic behaviour of solids ;
Stress and strain ;
Hooke’s law ;
Stress-strain curve ;
Elastic moduli ;
Applications of elastic behaviour of materials
Mechanical Properties of Fluids :
Streamline flow ;
Bernoulli’s principle ;
Thermal Properties of Matter :
Temperature and heat ;
Measurement of temperature ;
Ideal-gas equation and absolute temperature ;
Thermal expansion ;
Specific heat capacity ;
Change of state ;
Heat transfer ;
Newton’s law of cooling
Thermal equilibrium ;
Zeroth law of thermodynamics ;
Heat, internal energy and work ;
First law of thermodynamics ;
Specific heat capacity ;
Thermodynamic state variables and equation of state ;
Thermodynamic processes ;
Heat engines ;
Refrigerators and heat pumps ;
Second law of thermodynamics ;
Reversible and irreversible processes ;
Kinetic Theory :
Molecular nature of matter ;
Behaviour of gases ;
Kinetic theory of an ideal gas ;
Law of equipartition of energy ;
Specific heat capacity ;
Mean free path
Periodic and oscillatory motions ;
Simple harmonic motion ;
Simple harmonic motion and uniform circular motion ;
Velocity and acceleration in simple harmonic motion ;
Force law for simple harmonic motion ;
Energy in simple harmonic motion ;
Some systems executing Simple Harmonic Motion ;
Damped simple harmonic motion ;
Forced oscillations and resonance
Transverse and longitudinal waves ;
Displacement relation in a progressive wave ;
The speed of a travelling wave ;
The principle of superposition of waves ;
Reflection of waves ;
Outline of NCERT / CBSE ( Central Board of Secondary Education ) prescribed syllabus for subject Physics ( Physical Science ) Syllabus for Class 11 th ( 11 - XI th ) - Combined :
Unit I : Physical World and Measurement
Chapter – 2 : Units and Measurements
Need for measurement : Units of measurement;
systems of units;
fundamental and derived units.
Dimensions of physical quantities,
dimensional analysis and its applications.
Unit II : Kinematics
Chapter – 3 : Motion in a Straight Line
Frame of reference,
Motion in a straight line,
Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion,
uniform and non - uniform motion,
and instantaneous velocity,
uniformly accelerated motion,
velocity - time and position-time graphs.
Relations for uniformly accelerated motion ( graphical treatment ).
Chapter – 4 : Motion in a Plane
Scalar and vector quantities;
position and displacement vectors,
general vectors and their notations;
equality of vectors,
multiplication of vectors by a real number;
addition and subtraction of vectors,
resolution of a vector in a plane,
Scalar and Vector product of vectors.
Motion in a plane,
cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration
uniform circular motion.
Unit III : Laws of Motion
Chapter – 5 : Laws of Motion
Intuitive concept of force,
Newton's first law of motion;
and Newton's second law of motion;
Newton's third law of motion.
Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications.
Equilibrium of concurrent forces,
Static and kinetic friction,
laws of friction,
Dynamics of uniform circular motion:
examples of circular motion ( vehicle on a level circular road, vehicle on a banked road ).
Unit IV : Work, Energy and Power
Chapter – 6 : Work, Energy and Power
Work done by a constant force and a variable force;
work energy theorem,
Notion of potential energy,
potential energy of a spring,
non- conservative forces,
motion in a vertical circle;
elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.
Unit V : Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body
Chapter – 7 : System of Particles and Rotational Motion
Centre of mass of a two - particle system,
momentum conservation and
Centre of mass motion.
Centre of mass of a rigid body;
centre of mass of a uniform rod.
Moment of a force,
law of conservation of angular momentum and its applications.
Equilibrium of rigid bodies,
rigid body rotation and
equations of rotational motion,
comparison of linear and rotational motions.
Moment of inertia,
radius of gyration,
values of moments of inertia for simple geometrical objects ( no derivation ).
Unit VI : Gravitation
Chapter – 8 : Gravitation
Kepler's laws of planetary motion,
universal law of gravitation.
Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.
Gravitational potential energy and gravitational potential,
orbital velocity of a satellite.
Unit VII : Properties of Bulk Matter
Chapter – 9 : Mechanical Properties of Solids
Stress - strain relationship,
shear modulus of rigidity ( qualitative idea only ),
Chapter – 10 : Mechanical Properties of Fluids
Pressure due to a fluid column;
Pascal's law and its applications ( hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes ),
effect of gravity on fluid pressure.
streamline and turbulent flow,
Bernoulli's theorem and its simple applications.
Surface energy and surface tension,
angle of contact,
excess of pressure across a curved surface,
application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.
Chapter – 11 : Thermal Properties of Matter
thermal expansion of solids,
liquids and gases,
anomalous expansion of water;
specific heat capacity;
Cp, Cv - calorimetry;
change of state - latent heat capacity.
Heat transfer - conduction,
convection and radiation,
qualitative ideas of Blackbody radiation,
Wein's displacement Law,
Stefan's law .
Unit VIII : Thermodynamics
Chapter – 12 : Thermodynamics
Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature,
zeroth law of thermodynamics,
work and internal energy.
First law of thermodynamics,
Second law of thermodynamics:
gaseous state of matter,
change of condition of gaseous state -
isothermal, adiabatic, reversible, irreversible, and cyclic processes.
Unit IX : Behavior of Perfect Gases and Kinetic Theory of Gases
Chapter – 13 : Kinetic Theory
Equation of state of a perfect gas,
work done in compressing a gas.
Kinetic theory of gases -
concept of pressure.
Kinetic interpretation of temperature;
rms speed of gas molecules;
degrees of freedom,
law of equi - partition of energy ( statement only ) and
application to specific heat capacities of gases;
concept of mean free path,
Unit X : Oscillations and Waves
Chapter – 14 : Oscillations
Periodic motion - time period,
displacement as a function of time,
periodic functions and their application.
Simple harmonic motion ( S.H.M ) and its equations of motion;
phase; oscillations of a loaded spring -
restoring force and force constant;
energy in S.H.M.
Kinetic and potential energies;
simple pendulum derivation of expression for its time period.
Chapter – 15 : Waves
Wave motion :
Transverse and longitudinal waves,
speed of travelling wave,
displacement relation for a progressive wave,
principle of superposition of waves,
reflection of waves,
standing waves in strings and organ pipes,
fundamental mode and harmonics,
The record, to be submitted by the students, at the time of their annual examination, has to include:
• Record of at least 8 Experiments [ with 4 from each section ], to be performed by the students.
• Record of at least 6 Activities [ with 3 each from section A and section B ], to be performed by the students.
• Report of the project carried out by the students.
Evaluation Scheme :
Two experiments one from each section
Practical record ( experiment and activities )
One activity from any section
Viva on experiments, activities and project
Section - A
1. To measure diameter of a small spherical / cylindrical body and to measure internal diameter and depth of a given beaker / calorimeter using Vernier Callipers and hence find its volume.
2. To measure diameter of a given wire and thickness of a given sheet using screw gauge.
3. To determine volume of an irregular lamina using screw gauge.
4. To determine radius of curvature of a given spherical surface by a spherometer.
5. To determine the mass of two different objects using a beam balance.
6. To find the weight of a given body using parallelogram law of vectors.
7. Using a simple pendulum, plot its L - T2 graph and use it to find the effective length of second's pendulum.
8. To study variation of time period of a simple pendulum of a given length by taking bobs of same size but different masses and interpret the result.
9. To study the relationship between force of limiting friction and normal reaction and to find the co- efficient of friction between a block and a horizontal surface.
10. To find the downward force, along an inclined plane, acting on a roller due to gravitational pull of the earth and study its relationship with the angle of inclination θ by plotting graph between force and Sinθ.
1. To make a paper scale of given least count, e.g., 0.2 cm, 0.5 cm.
2. To determine mass of a given body using a metre scale by principle of moments.
3. To plot a graph for a given set of data, with proper choice of scales and error bars.
4. To measure the force of limiting friction for rolling of a roller on a horizontal plane.
5. To study the variation in range of a projectile with angle of projection.
6. To study the conservation of energy of a ball rolling down on an inclined plane ( using a double inclined plane ).
7. To study dissipation of energy of a simple pendulum by plotting a graph between square of amplitude and time.
Section – B
1. To determine Young's modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire.
2. To find the force constant of a helical spring by plotting a graph between load and extension.
3. To study the variation in volume with pressure for a sample of air at constant temperature by plotting graphs between P and V, and between P and 1 / V.
4. To determine the surface tension of water by capillary rise method.
5. To determine the coefficient of viscosity of a given viscous liquid by measuring terminal velocity of a given spherical body.
6. To study the relationship between the temperature of a hot body and time by plotting a cooling curve.
7. To determine specific heat capacity of a given solid by method of mixtures.
8. To study the relation between frequency and length of a given wire under constant tension using sonometer.
9. To study the relation between the length of a given wire and tension for constant frequency using sonometer.
10. To find the speed of sound in air at room temperature using a resonance tube by two resonance positions.
1. To observe change of state and plot a cooling curve for molten wax.
2. To observe and explain the effect of heating on a bi - metallic strip.
3. To note the change in level of liquid in a container on heating and interpret the observations.
4. To study the effect of detergent on surface tension of water by observing capillary rise.
5. To study the factors affecting the rate of loss of heat of a liquid.
6. To study the effect of load on depression of a suitably clamped metre scale loaded at ( i ) its end ( ii ) in the middle.
7. To observe the decrease in pressure with increase in velocity of a fluid.
Practical Examination for Visually Impaired :
Note: Same Evaluation scheme and general guidelines for visually impaired students as given for Class XII may be followed.
A. Items for Identification / Familiarity of the apparatus for assessment in practical’s ( All experiments )
Gram and Milligram
Parallelogram law of vectors apparatus,
pulleys and pans used in the same ‘weights’ used,
Bob and string used in a simple pendulum,
stop clock/stop watch,
suspension arrangement used,
arrangement used for measuring extension,
pan and pulley used in it,
‘weights’ Tuning Fork,
gram and milligram weights,
Flask / Beaker used for adding water.
B. List of Practical
1. To measure diameter of a small spherical / cylindrical body using Vernier Calipers.
2. To measure the internal diameter and depth of a given beaker / calorimeter using Vernier Calipers and hence find its volume.
3. To measure diameter of given wire using screw gauge.
4. To measure thickness of a given sheet using screw gauge.
5. To determine the mass of a given object using a beam balance.
6. To find the weight of given body using the parallelogram law of vectors.
7. Using a simple pendulum plot L - T and L - T2 graphs. Hence find the effective length of second’s pendulum using appropriate length values.
8. To find the force constant of given helical spring by plotting a graph between load and extension.
9. ( i ) To study the relation between frequency and length of a given wire under constant tension using a sonometer.
( ii ) To study the relation between the length of a given wire and tension, for constant frequency, using a sonometer.
10. To find the speed of sound in air, at room temperature, using a resonance tube, by observing the two resonance positions.
Note: The above practical may be carried out in an experiential manner rather than recording observations.
Prescribed Books :
1. Physics Part-I, Textbook for Class XI, Published by NCERT
2. Physics Part-II, Textbook for Class XI, Published by NCERT
3. Laboratory Manual of Physics, Class XI Published by NCERT
4. The list of other related books and manuals brought out by NCERT
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Outline of NCERT / CBSE ( Central Board of Secondary Education ) prescribed syllabus for subject Physics ( Physical Science ) Syllabus for Class 12 th ( XII th - 12 ) :
Unit I : Electrostatics
Chapter – 1 : Electric Charges and Fields
Conservation of charge, Coulomb's law -
force between two point charges,
forces between multiple charges ;
superposition principle and
continuous charge distribution.
electric field due to a point charge,
electric field lines,
electric field due to a dipole,
torque on a dipole in uniform electric field.
statement of Gauss's theorem and
its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire,
uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and
uniformly charged thin spherical shell ( field inside and outside ).
Chapter – 2 : Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
electric potential due to a point charge,
a dipole and system of charges ;
energy of a system of two-point charges and
of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.
Conductors and insulators,
free charges and
bound charges inside a conductor.
Dielectrics and electric polarization,
capacitors and capacitance,
combination of capacitors in series and in parallel,
capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates,
energy stored in a capacitor ( no derivation, formulae only ).
Unit II : Current Electricity
Chapter – 3 : Current Electricity
flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor,
mobility and their relation with electric current;
Ohm's law, V-I characteristics ( linear and non-linear ),
electrical energy and power,
electrical resistivity and conductivity,
temperature dependence of resistance,
Internal resistance of a cell,
potential difference and emf of a cell,
combination of cells in series and in parallel,
Kirchhoff's rules, Wheatstone bridge.
Unit III : Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
Chapter – 4 : Moving Charges and Magnetism
Concept of magnetic field,
Biot - Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.
Ampere's law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire.
Straight solenoid ( only qualitative treatment ),
force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields.
Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field,
force between two parallel current-carrying conductors -
definition of ampere, torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field ;
Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment,
moving coil galvanometer, its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
Chapter – 5 : Magnetism and Matter
Bar magnet, bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid ( qualitative treatment only ),
magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole ( bar magnet ) along its axis and
perpendicular to its axis ( qualitative treatment only ),
torque on a magnetic dipole ( bar magnet ) in a uniform magnetic field ( qualitative treatment only ),
magnetic field lines.
Magnetic properties of materials - Para-, dia- and ferro - magnetic substances with examples,
Magnetization of materials,
effect of temperature on magnetic properties.
Unit IV : Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
Chapter – 6 : Electromagnetic Induction
Faraday's laws, induced EMF and current;
Lenz's Law, Self and mutual induction.
Chapter – 7 : Alternating Current
peak and RMS value of alternating current / voltage;
reactance and impedance ;
LCR series circuit ( phasors only ),
resonance, power in AC circuits, power factor, wattless current.
AC generator, Transformer.
Unit V: Electromagnetic waves
Chapter – 8 : Electromagnetic Waves
Basic idea of displacement current,
Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics,
their transverse nature ( qualitative idea only ).
Electromagnetic spectrum ( radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays )
including elementary facts about their uses.
Unit VI : Optics
Chapter – 9 : Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
Ray Optics : Reflection of light,
spherical mirrors, mirror formula,
refraction of light,
total internal reflection and optical fibers,
refraction at spherical surfaces,
lenses, thin lens formula,
lens maker’s formula, magnification,
power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact,
refraction of light through a prism.
Optical instruments : Microscopes and astronomical telescopes ( reflecting and refracting ) and their magnifying powers.
Chapter – 10 : Wave Optics
Wave optics : Wave front and Huygen’s principle,
reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts.
Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s principle.
Interference, Young's double slit experiment and
expression for fringe width ( No derivation final expression only ),
coherent sources and sustained interference of light,
diffraction due to a single slit,
width of central maxima ( qualitative treatment only ).
Unit VII : Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
Chapter – 11 : Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
Dual nature of radiation,
Hertz and Lenard's observations ;
Einstein's photoelectric equation -
particle nature of light.
Experimental study of photoelectric effect
Matter waves - wave nature of particles,
Unit VIII : Atoms and Nuclei
Chapter – 12 : Atoms
Alpha - particle scattering experiment;
Rutherford's model of atom;
Bohr model of hydrogen atom,
Expression for radius of nth possible orbit,
velocity and energy of electron in his orbit,
of hydrogen line spectra ( qualitative treatment only ).
Chapter – 13 : Nuclei
Composition and size of nucleus,
Mass-energy relation, mass defect;
binding energy per nucleon and
its variation with mass number ;
nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.
Unit IX : Electronic Devices
Chapter – 14 : Semiconductor Electronics : Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators ( qualitative ideas only )
Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors - p and n type, p - n junction
Semiconductor diode - I - V characteristics in forward and reverse bias,
application of junction diode - diode as a rectifier.
The record to be submitted by the students at the time of their annual examination has to include :
Record of at least 8 Experiments [ with 4 from each section], to be performed by the students.
Record of at least 6 Activities [ with 3 each from section A and section B ], to be performed by the students.
The Report of the project carried out by the students.
Evaluation Scheme :
Two experiments one from each section 7+7 Marks
Practical record [ experiments and activities ] 5 Marks
One activity from any section 3 Marks
Investigatory Project 3 Marks
Viva on experiments, activities and project 5 Marks
Total 30 marks
Section – A
1. To determine resistivity of two / three wires by plotting a graph for potential difference versus current.
2. To find resistance of a given wire / standard resistor using metre bridge.
3. To verify the laws of combination ( series ) of resistances using a metre bridge.
To verify the laws of combination ( parallel ) of resistances using a metre bridge.
4. To determine resistance of a galvanometer by half-deflection method and to find its figure of merit.
5. To convert the given galvanometer ( of known resistance and figure of merit ) into a voltmeter of desired range and to verify the same.
To convert the given galvanometer ( of known resistance and figure of merit ) into an ammeter of desired range and to verify the same.
6. To find the frequency of AC mains with a sonometer.
1. To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core.
2. To measure resistance, voltage ( AC / DC ), current ( AC ) and check continuity of a given circuit using multimeter.
3. To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs, three ( on / off ) switches, a fuse and a power source.
4. To assemble the components of a given electrical circuit.
5. To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady current.
6. To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery, resistor / rheostat, key, ammeter and voltmeter. Mark the components that are not
connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram.
Section - B
1. To find the value of v for different values of u in case of a concave mirror and to find the focal length.
2. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens.
3. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between u and v or between 1/u and 1/v.
4. To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens.
5. To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence and angle of deviation.
6. To determine refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope.
7. To find the refractive index of a liquid using convex lens and plane mirror.
8. To find the refractive index of a liquid using a concave mirror and a plane mirror.
9. To draw the I-V characteristic curve for a p-n junction diode in forward and reverse bias.
1. To identify a diode, an LED, a resistor and a capacitor from a mixed collection of such items.
2. Use of multimeter to see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED and check whether a given electronic component ( e.g., diode ) is in working order.
3. To study effect of intensity of light ( by varying distance of the source ) on an LDR.
4. To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab.
5. To observe diffraction of light due to a thin slit.
6. To study the nature and size of the image formed by a ( i ) convex lens, or ( ii ) concave mirror, on a screen by using a candle and a screen ( for different distances of the candle from the lens / mirror ).
7. To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the given set of lenses.
Suggested Investigatory Projects :
1. To study various factors on which the internal resistance / EMF of a cell depends.
2. To study the variations in current flowing in a circuit containing an LDR because of a variation in
( a ) the power of the incandescent lamp, used to 'illuminate' the LDR ( keeping all the lamps at a fixed distance ).
( b ) the distance of a incandescent lamp ( of fixed power ) used to 'illuminate' the LDR.
3. To find the refractive indices of ( a ) water ( b ) oil ( transparent ) using a plane mirror, an equiconvex lens ( made from a glass of known refractive index ) and an adjustable object needle.
4. To investigate the relation between the ratio of ( i ) output and input voltage and ( ii ) number of turns in the secondary coil and primary coil of a self-designed transformer.
5. To investigate the dependence of the angle of deviation on the angle of incidence using a hollow prism filled one by one, with different transparent fluids.
6. To estimate the charge induced on each one of the two identical Styrofoam ( or pith ) balls suspended in a vertical plane by making use of Coulomb's law.
7. To study the factor on which the self-inductance of a coil depends by observing the effect of this coil, when put in series with a resistor / ( bulb ) in a circuit fed up by an A.C. source of adjustable frequency.
8. To study the earth's magnetic field using a compass needle - bar magnet by plotting magnetic field lines and tangent galvanometer.
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